Question: Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

Our analysis of why the Nissan Micra failed to impress Indian customers boiled the reasons down to cost (Rs 5.58 lakh for the XV version and Rs 6.04 lakh for the XV Premium [prices ex-showroom, Delhi]), lack of ABS or passenger airbags even as optional features, and the dearth of a solid dealers network.

Why did they stop making Nissan Micra?

Nissan Micra and Sunny discontinued as the two couldnt be upgraded for BS6 norms. Nissan to launch a 1.3-litre turbo-petrol Kicks soon. A sub-4m petrol-only compact SUV from Nissan also in the offing.

What happened to Nissan in India?

In fiscal 2020, Nissan sold less than 5000 units in India registering a 34 per cent decline over the previous year. ... In India, the company has been under pressure for quite sometime. In mid 2019, it laid off 1700 employees in India as part of a global exercise where it fired 12,500 workers.

Is Nissan going to quit India?

Nissan stated that its agreement with Hover Automotive India Pvt. Ltd. for exclusive sales, marketing and distribution of Nissan branded vehicles and parts in India has been terminated. Further details about the business structure will be announced in due course.

Is Nissan going to shut down in India?

CHENNAI, May 25 (Reuters) - Automaker Renault-Nissan will shut its plant in Indias southern Tamil Nadu state until May 30, according to an internal note and two sources familiar with the matter, a day after workers said they would strike over coronavirus-related safety concerns.

Can we buy Nissan cars in India?

Currently, Nissan sells five products in India including the Micra, Sunny, Kicks, Terrano, and the GT-R. All these products are locally manufactured, with the only exception being the GT-R, which is a CBU. The company has an alliance with Renault and they have set up a production facility in Chennai.

Is Nissan magnite a good choice?

User Review on Nissan Magnite XE Car is full loaded amazing features on this great price sagment. Exterior / interior design looks amazing. The comfortable driving seat even in back seat you can sit very comfortably with some space.. In this price segment it very Much competitive to others cars.

Question 2: What does a formula do in a spreadsheet? Question 3: Name and explain four commonly used type's data in worksheet.

Question 4: List five business applications for which one can use excel. Question 5: List some of the sensitivity tools of Excel. Do these organizations really need databases, and if so, why? Question 3: What is Tally? What is the business value of tally? Why is it required for business and management?

Illustrate Question 2: Research on Google and list down various free hosting websites. Question 3: What attributes you would like to include in your professional website? Question 4: What are the security challenges for any organization? Illustrate Question 5: How you can protect individual identity and secure in cyber world?

Also elaborate on Managerial Roles and Operational Approaches to the Management Process. Q1: Elaborate upon the interrelationship between planning, organizing and control.

Comment on the steps in the delegation process. Discuss some reasons for the failure of delegation. With examples, comment on the various sources of power. Q3: What is employee retention? Comment on the utility of employee retention strategies. With examples, Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? on the sources of conflict in an organization.

Discuss the relevance and impact of culture and gender in conflict handling. Q5: Why is control important? Taking examples, explain the control process. Structure and Work Design a. Comment on the ethics of managing the environment around the company with the context of Clean Development mechanism and Carbon Credits Q3: Goals and Objectives and how a Blue Ocean Strategy can help shape the future direction of the organization.

Q4: Recruitment and Selection Techniques Q5: Key ingredients of Leadership with examples. During the mid 1980s, the company was faced with a decreasing demand for its products. It became necessary to cut the costs of operations in order to remain in business and be competitive.

To keep its costs down, the management of the company Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? the base wages of its union employees. This was done arbitrarily and without consulting or negotiating with the union representatives.

Even though the dispute between the union and the management had been simmering for a long time at the plant in Austin, it culminated in a strike led by the union in August 1985. An arbitrator was appointed to act as mediator and due to his recommendation; some of the cuts in wages were restored. The management offered to restore the balance of the cuts at the time when the previous labour contract would expire and a new contract would be signed.

The new contract was signed by all the unions at all other Hormel plants, except the one in Austin, Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? hence the strike. Because of the worker 's strike, the plant was shut down.

The plant remained closed for nearly five months. The strike had not yet been settled when the management at the Austin plant decided to reopen the plant, and accordingly, some union members returned to work. Many other workers refused to return to work and formed a picket line and the local union urged its members not to cross the picket line.

The management started to hire new workers to replace those who were on strike. There was conflict between the employees and the workers on strike, so much so that at one time, there was a danger of physical violence and local police had to be called in to restrain the workers who were on strike.

The local union sent some of its members to picket other Hormel plants and asked the union members at these other plants to honour the picket lines and not report for work. About a week after the Austin plant was reopened, the central management fired hundreds of their workers at plants in Texas, Iowa and Nebraska for refusing to cross the picket lines and refusing to report for work.

This step was significant because picket lines at the other plants were not set up Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? the local employees but by the striking employees at the plant in Austin.

The strike at the plant in Austin went into ninth month. Tempers flared and violence erupted and Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? May 1986 hundreds of strikers fought with police outside the Austin plant.

The parent union, United Food and Commercial Workers union also disagreed with the striking workers prompted by the local union, considering the economic slowdown and conditions in the industry. The President of the parent union decided to take over the operations of the local union and started proceedings to appoint a new union leadership at this plant.

He believed that the conflict had gone too far and he hoped that with these changes, the strike would be over and the Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? could go back to work. Who were the winners and who were the losers in this conflict? Is the conflict between union and management inevitable? What preventive steps can be taken to avoid the possibility of worker strike? If you were hired as a mediator, after the union went on strike, what step would Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

recommend in order to Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? the negative impact of this conflict? He was an excellent worker and had always achieved beyond the target assigned by his superior. In March 2001 when he returned from his official tour of 15 days, he came to know from his colleagues that the promotion list has been displayed and his name does not appear in that list.

On hearing this, he felt annoyed, humiliated and in his gush of anger entered the office of Mr. Mithun Chatterjee, General Manager Marketing and began to discuss: Mr. Mashroo : Why I have not been promoted, Sir? Since last year you are assuring me to continue working hard and that I would be promoted this year. This year too, you have not promoted me. Chatterjee felt insulted at Mr.

Mashroo's behaviour as some guests were waiting outside his cabin. Chatterjee: First take your seat and cool down. I am indeed surprised to find your name missing in the promotion list, even though I had recommended you for promotion.

As you are aware, these days Vice President Marketing decides on all matters related to promotion and he mentioned about the feedback from the field staff he had received regarding your poor interpersonal skills. So, I suggest you that you be careful about your work behaviour and try to improve upon it. We will see next time. Mashroo was very angry at Mr.

Next day he went to meet Mr. Mashroo: Good morning Sir, I have come to know from Mr. Chatterjee that I have not been given promotion because of my poor interpersonal skills. Sir, you may be aware that the new sales staff is very arrogant because they proclaim that they have postgraduate degree from renowned business schools in the country and they are not interested in working in the field.

That is why I have to be strict in managing them, as our ultimate goal is to achieve the target. I was just informally discussing with Mr. But as far as this promotion is concerned, I have already given you 4 rating in your performance and recommended you for the same. Why will I harm you in getting the promotion; after all, you are the high performer in the company.

Mashroo: How can it happen, Sir? How can they change the performance rating that you have given? Mashroo goes to meet Mr. Ashok Motiramani, Head of Human Resource Department. I have a problem regarding my promotion. I am the only person in the marketing department who had for the past five years achieved beyond the target. But this time I have not Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? given promotion. I am sorry I cannot do anything for you. Finally, he decided to go for long leave. Reflect on the behaviour of Mr.

What are the problems in this organization as seen in this situation? What would be suggest to Mr. Mashroo as his next course of action? Question 2: What are the factors we should consider while selecting an advertising agency? Question 3: Explain the communication process highlighting the roles of the source, medium and message. Question 4: Discuss the consumer purchase behavior and why do we need to understand this while designing communication. Question 5: Discuss the role of memory in consumer response to advertising.

Question 2: What are attitudes? How do they influence consumer purchase behavior? Question 4: What are the factors one should consider before starting the creative designs of advertisements? Question 5: How is business advertising different from consumer advertising?

Question 2: Differentiate between consumer sales promotion and trade promotionswhile highlighting tools used for each. Question 3: What is Public Relations? Question 4: Discuss the relative merits and demerits of various modes of entry by a company in the international market. Question 5: Discuss key challenges in handling sales force. The Reebok fit-hub stores offer fitness and training products besides advice, guidance and information on community based fitness events.

The company plans to convert all the existing 490 Reebok stores in India to fit-hub stores in next couple of years. Question 1: Critically analyze firms new strategy. Question 2: Reebok has huge residual equity in the countrysuggest how it can be leveraged with communication.

However from first July it shifted from a music channel category to General entertainment channel category. Its original content garnered higher television ratings compared to its music slot. The broadcaster was playing three hours of music content in a day in the morning slot so far.

Some of its rivals play 16-19 hours of music throughout the day. Gumrah-End of Innocence into a daily show. Its other shows which are directed towards youth are already well entrenched. The company also forayed into Channel V spot coffee parlors and have launched channel V apparels and phone range to attract youth which is their core target market. Question 1: What benefit do you see for the firm in the new segment to improve its marketing Question 2: Suggest firm a positioning migration plan for smooth acceptance.

Discuss Question 2: Enumerate the advantages of trade credit. Question 3: Write short notes on: a. Call money market in India b. Its current annual credit sales amounts to Rs 900 lakh. The variable cost is 80%. On the current level for sales the bad debts are 0. The past experience has been that 50% of the customers avail of the cash discount, the remaining being financed in the ratio of 2:1 by a mix of bank borrowings and owned funds which costs 25% and 28% per annum respectively.

Question 2: What are the different forms of bank credit? Explain different modes in which collateral is placed. Question 3: From the following information you are required to calculate the Economic Order Quantity and the total annual inventory cost. Discuss Question 5: A company deal in consumer durables, Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

an annual turnover of Rs 80 lakh, 75% of which are credit sales effected through a large number of dealers while the balance sales are made through showrooms on cash basis. Normal credit allowed is 30 days. The company proposes to expand its business substantially and Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? is a good demand as well. Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? the marketing manager finds that the dealers have difficulty in holding more stocks due to financial problems.

He therefore proposes a change in the credit policy as follows: The product yields an average contribution of 25% on sales. Fixed costs amount to Rs 5 lakh per annum. The company expects a pre tax return of 20% on capital employed. The finance manager after a review of the proposal has recommended increasing the provision for bad debts from the current 0. Evaluate the merits of the new proposal and recommend the best policy.

Mailing and processing delays account for 6 days. If a lock box system is introduced, the delay is reduced to 3 days but the annual cost of the lock box system comes to Rs 50,000. Question 3: Explain the norms suggested by Tandon Committee for providing bank credit.

You are required to prepare a statement showing the working capital needed to finance a level of activity of 1,04,000 units of production. Assume that production is carried out during the year evenly. The estimated sales, expenses etc are given below: Additional Information: 1. Wages and salaries are paid fortnightly with a time lag of 15 days. The company keeps minimum cash balance of Rs 5 lakh.

Cash in excess of Rs 7 lakhs is Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? in Government securities in the multiples of Rs 1 lakh. Shortfalls in the minimum cash balance are made good by borrowings from the banks.

Ignore interest received and paid. Question 2: How do operations on a stock exchange affect the economic life of a nation?

What are the advantages form the point of view of a company? Question 5: What is a market index? Outline its utility for security analysis. Question 2: What are the main determinants of the level of interest rates real and nominal rates?

Question 3: How do we compute expected return, variance and standard deviation using time series of historical past rates of return? Question 4: Describe the main differences in the historical performance of returns on equity and long-term bonds.

Question 5: Describe how we measure risk with non-normal distributions. Question 3: Explain the trade-off between liquidity and expected returns. Question 4: Explain the role of diversification in eliminating the portfolio risk. The alternative Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

investment in T-bills pays 5 percent per year. If you require a risk premium of 10 percent, how much will you be willing to pay for the portfolio? Suppose that the portfolio can be purchased for the amount you found in. What will be the expected rate of return on the portfolio?

Now, suppose that you require a risk premium of 15 percent. If you were the specialist, would you desire to increase or decrease your inventory of this stock? What are the steps that organizations should take to handle these challenges? In the times of economic recession, how would you balance the supply and demand of Human Resources in your organization?

Which appraisal system would you recommend to your organization for appraising its employees and why? Write a short note on The Employees' State Insurance Act, 1948. Why is the quality of work life important for the employee and the organization? Q5: Discuss how the recommendations of the National Commission of Labour can be used effectively in private organizations. Design a systematic transfer policy. What steps would you take to tackle human relations Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

in your organization? Why do you think it is important for an organization to involve employees or employee representatives at all levels of the decision-making process? Discuss how collective bargaining evolved in India. Case Study - 1 Human Resource Planning - What is that?

Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

You are a human resource consultant. The newly appointed president of a large paper manufacturing firm has called you: President: I have been in this job for about one month now, and all I seem to do is interview people and listen to personal problems. You: Why have you been interviewing people? Don't you have a human resource department? However, the human resource department does not hire top management people. As soon as I took over, I found out that two of my vice presidents were retiring and we had no one to replace them.

You: Have you hired anyone? President: Yes, I have, and that is part of the problem. I hired a person from the outside. As soon as the announcement was made, one of my department heads came in and resigned. She said she had wanted that job as vice president for eight years.

She was angry because we had hired someone from outside. How was I Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? to Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? she wanted the job? You: What have you done about the other vice president job? President: Nothing, because I am afraid someone else will quit because they were not considered for the job. But that is only half my problem. I just found out that among our youngest professional employees, there has been an 80 per cent turnover rate during the past three years.

These are the people we promote around here. As you know, that is how I started out in this company. I was a mechanical engineer. You: Has any one asked them why they are leaving? President: Yes, and they all give basically the same answer: They say they do not feel that they have any future here.

Maybe I should call them all together and explain how I progressed in this company. You: Have you ever considered implementing a human resource planning system?

How would you answer the president's question- 'Human resource planning?


What would be required to establish a human resource planning system in this company? The grant Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? section of its water division was formed seven years ago. The main functions of this division are to review applications for grants, engineering designs and requests for change.

It also inspects the operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment facilities. Four engineers, one technician and one secretary-cum-programmer reported to Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? Sharan, head of the section. Prem was 36 years old and had headed the section since its inception. He had earned a good reputation for his technical acumen and dedication. Three of the engineers had joined the section recently. Sundaram, had been working there for the last four years.

Prem had personally trained him. Because of his experience and expertise, Prem had allotted to him the areas with the most complicated projects. The other three engineers were given less complex regions.

They were asked to work closely with Sundaram and learn all they could about the section's work. At the beginning of the year, Prem decided that the new engineers had gained enough experience to undertake more difficult tasks. He divided the territory on a geographical basis. This section worked fine and the section was able to meet all its objectives. Three months ago, he accepted an offer with larger responsibilities and growth possibility from a large organization in the private sector.

He gave two months' notice to the top management. Time passed, but the top management did not even advertise for a new section chief. People in the section speculated as to who might take over. Most of them hoped that Sundaram would take over. On the Monday of Prem's last week, top executive met with him and the section employees and announced that they had decided to appoint Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

temporary section head till a new one could be hired. This came as quite a surprise to Sundaram and other people in the section. Shyam had no experience of the section's work. His background was in technical assistance. What was the rationale behind Shyam's choice? Assess Prem's role as the section chief. Q4: Discuss the common interview problems. Q5: Explain the career development initiatives. Q2: Describe the components of Executive Remuneration.

Q3: Explain the various steps in the benefits administration. Q4: How is safety performance assessed? Q5: Bring out the principles of transfers. Q2: Explain the strategies and techniques adopted by the management to keep their plants union-free. How does it help resolve industrial conflict?

Q4: Explain the typical e-recruiting model. Q5: What is reverse culture shock? Both of them are close friends from the college days itself and the same friendship is continuing in the organisation too as they are placed in the same company, Hi-tech Solutions.

As per the grade is concerned both are at same level but when responsibility is concerned Manoj is holding more responsibility being in core Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?. By nature Rita is friendly in nature and ready to help the people who are in need.

Manoj is an introvert, ready to help if approached personally and is a bit egoistic in nature. They have successfully completed 5 years in the organization. The Management is very much satisfied with both of them as they are equally talented and constant performers. Rita started noticing some behavioral changes in Manoj and he is not like as he use to be in past. During general conversations she feels that Manoj is taunting her that she is popular among the employees in the organisation on the other hand he is not even recognised by fellow employees.

Sharma General Manager Hi-tech Solutions received a shocking mail from Manoj about his resignation. Sharma called Rita immediately and discussed about the same as she is close friend of Manoj.

By hearing the news Rita got stunned and said that she do not know this before she also revealed her current experience with him. Sharma took Manoj to Canteen to make him comfortable after some general discussion he started on the issue. Manoj, after some hesitations opened his thinking in front of Mr. This to him is quite degrading on each day of work and this is totally disturbing him.

Manoj also questioned that both of them have same qualification and experience in this organisation. More over the responsibilities over him are more valuable than that of Rita. After all these things if he is being ignored or unrecognized by the fellow employees his ego does not allow him to continue here. By listening to him Mr. Sharma felt that it is not going to be very difficult to stop his resignation.

Sharma explained Manoj the reasons for such partial behavior of the employees. Sharma, Manoj felt sorry for his reaction and ready to take back his resignation. Question 1: Find the reason that Mr.

Sharma would have given to Manoj. The job of eligibility technician is responsible for all client contact, policy interpretation, and financial decisions related to several forms of public aid e. Eligibility technicians must read a large number of memos and announcements of new and revised policies and procedures. Eligibility technicians were complaining they had difficulty reading and responding to this correspondence. The county has 200 eligibility technicians.

Preliminary evaluation of the speed reading program was that trainees liked it. Two months after the training was conducted, the technicians told their managers that they were not using the speed reading course in their jobs, but were using it in leisure reading at home. Evaluate the needs assessment process used to determine that speed reading was necessary.

What was good about it? How would you have conducted the needs assessment? Question 2: What are the essential factors for the success of industrial relations? Question 4: Which Act introduces a three tier system for industrial relations and how would you determine a justified or unjustified strike? Question 5: Discuss the meaning and scope of misconduct. Question 3: Differentiate between adjudication and arbitration. Discuss the main objectives and provisions of the Act.

Question 5: Discuss three conditions necessary for the Parliament to make laws on any matter of the State List. Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? 2: What are the steps involved in the procedure of disciplinary action. Question 3: Write short notes on any two: a. Lay off Question 4: State the conditions in which the employee is eligible and the circumstances when gratuity is forfeited. Include if any amendments have been made.

Mention the formula to calculate gratuity. Question 5: Discuss the process of collective bargaining in resolving industrial disputes in India with a recent example. So for the last 60 days, every regular employee of Volvo has been protesting outside the factory premises against the oppressive management practices adopted by the company.

Located just 30 kilometres from Bangalore, the strike proceeds even as the management continues to push forward production using a combination of less experienced trainees, probationers and other assorted contract workers hired from staffing agencies.

The quantity of production has been strongly impacted and the clients that placed orders with Volvo would need to be doubly concerned about the quality Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? buses delivered during this period of time. Each Volvo bus is sold between Rs 70 lakh to Rs 1. The genesis of the conflict lies in the low wages at the factory, right from the time the Volvo buses division was set up in 2001.

The share of Azad Builders, who had a 30 per cent minority stake in Volvo India, was bought out by Volvo in 2008, making it a fully-owned subsidiary of the Swedish giant.

At this point of time, workers were being paid monthly wage of Rs 5,500. After continuous demands from the workers for higher wages — the management consented to give a salary hike of a measly Rs 650 in July 2009. When the workers asked for a higher wage uptick, the management of Volvo insisted that they would only negotiate with a recognised union.

The management then entered into negotiations with the elected heads of the union on Friday, April 23, 2010. The negotiations went on for a long time and came to a conclusion only at 17:30 hrs on that day. Since the negotiations were to result in the long anticipated wage increases, there was a lot of curiosity among a section of the workers who waited near the meeting room to know what had happened. It was precisely between the conclusion of the meeting and the usual bus- departure time of 17:40 hrs, that Raghuram Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

was a manager in the administration asked the buses to leave at 17:35 hrs, five minutes before their usual time. Some other workers who were peacefully sitting in the bus, disembarked to protest this decision to send the buses early.

The buses were sent out all the same. Being 10 kilometres from nearest town, Hoskote, these buses are the workers sole mode of transport after work. Upon discovering that the buses had already left, all the workers then went to the management asking for the buses Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? be recalled, but the management refused. It is during this argument that there was a surge in the crowd which resulted in some people being pushed — both among the workers and the management.

This was given a negative spin in the subsequent public relations campaign by Volvo as an assault by the workers on a foreigner, Mr Schwartz. The workers surrounded the management asking for transportation and this brouhaha went on till the early hours of the next day which was a Saturday, a holiday. On the same day the management suspended the representatives of the Union and two others.

With no progress in sight, in August 2010, the workers went on a full-strike demanding the required wage hike that had never materialised and the reinstatement of their union representatives. The strike led to tripartite negotiations and successfully ended with the long awaited wage settlement valid for three years Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

salaries increasing in the range of Rs 3,500-5,000 for the employees. However the workers, to their dismay, started to find themselves being increasingly harassed on the factory floor.

All the probation periods were increased by one year, the managers started accusing employees of product sabotage and dragging them to the police, trainees were not regularised and there was an increase in the number of contract workers used who are paid around half the salary of a regular employee. Apart from this, the management started to resort to other petty actions like denying workers any kind of leaves whether for exams or personal problemsreducing the quality of transportation without changing the salary contribution under the transportation headharassment about breaks and so on.

What should be noted is that the three managers who were involved in the incidents of April 23, have since been moved out of the company or the division. Despite discovering errors on the side of the management during their domestic enquiries, the management did not reinstate the union representatives. While publicly taking a stand supporting dialogue with unions, Volvo internally kept its elected union members under suspension for over a year.

With no other legitimate representation and facing increased harassment at the workplace, the workers saw no other option but to go on strike again on August 2, 2011. Subsequently, the union representatives were dismissed and now the strike soldiers on into its 55th day as on September 25, 2011. There are some external considerations that need to be factored in to understand the strike in the right perspective.

There has been double-digit inflation in the Indian economy since 2008 and it is through this period that automotive companies have refused to raise wages while trying to increase productivity. Their 'innovative' solution to compensate for rising input costs and market volatility was to increase the pressure on the workers.

This not only depicts a profound lack of creative problem solving but has also led to increased industrial disputes from Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? north to the south of the country in 2011.

The clinching aspect is that most of the unrest is limited to the automotive sector which has recently been facing various other market-related problems. It then becomes obvious that the market problems are being transmitted onto the ordinary employees thus reflecting the incompetency of the management. There has been an increasing usage and exploitation of contract workers by Indian companies.

The reaction of firms to local competition and globalisation has been the creative use and abuse of contractors and contract workers. The frustration against these rampant practices was recently shown in a trite Supreme Court judgement admonishing a private company for taking advantage of contract workers and summarily dismissing its petition. Labour reforms, while simplifying the laws, should ensure that the workers are protected and allows them to work in a decent work environment.

Those in policy-making capacities must keep in mind that Western free-market type relaxed labour practices, were implemented only after enforcing rigorous social security mechanisms and stringent health and safety laws — none of which exist in India. It is the inability of the managements across India to maturely handle the market and workers that reflects in the high number of industrial disputes across the country.

Harassing the workers and increasing their work-loads to intolerable levels is not a solution to market problems. This is understood by the best companies that have survived over long periods of time.

While harassing workers may give some short-term marginal benefits in the balance sheets - it will only ruin the enterprise, its image and its products in the longer run. As for the employees of Volvo, small but determined, their struggle for a decent livelihood moves onto another day. Question 1: Discuss the external plausible considerations that could have factored the strike. Question 2: What were the workers concerns?

Question 3: How did the management address them? General Manager is the Chief Executive, having full authority on all matters of administration. During the last two years, the Corporation has come into financial problems due to economic recession. As such, to bring control on the expenses the General Manager, has issued an unconditional order forbidding supervisory foremen to authorise over-time work under any circumstances.

One day, a cable-laying workman was working inside a wet manhole, in the marshy area near a river. About an hour before closing time he realised that he could not finish the job within the regular working hours. He estimated, that the work would be over within four hours more. The foreman having no authority to grant over-time telephoned the Section Officer at the Head Office. Section Officer, unwilling to breach the rule, contacted the Superintendent who in turn asked the Section Officer, to use his discretion.

Section Officer conveyed the same message to the foreman. The Foreman, however, was still afraid of the consequences of over-time order. He therefore told the cable lay-man to wrap the cable securely and leave the work, to be finished the next day. During the night, the river went on flood. The damage to the cable was corrected after many days, involving a great expenditure. Question 3: Under such rules, can there be a sense of achievement and job satisfaction for the subordinates?

Question 5: Recommend an over-time Policy to the Damodar Electric Supply Corporation. Question 2: Why is it important for organizations in India to search for hybrid, improvised models of management?

Question 3: What is Organisational Citizenship Behaviour? Question 4: How would you differentiate between perceptual errors and attributional errors? Question 5: Explain with example Distinctiveness in Attribution process.

Question 2: Write a note on Pioneering-Innovating motive. Question 3: What is emotional intelligence? Question 4: What are existential positions in Transaction Analysis? Question 5: What are the gains from synergistic group-working?

Question 2: What are roles? How do they compare with a job description? Question 3: What are the advantages and limitations of a strong organizational culture? Question 4: Explain the process Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? change. Question 5: Discuss feminine styles of leadership. Even though it is a privately held corporation, it has developed a participative management style where the workers are actively and genuinely involved in the governance of the company.

This may be one of the reasons why the company has been enjoying continuous success over the years. The Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? system started in 1952 and initially, the employees simply participated in cost saving efforts and they shared those savings among themselves and with the company. Employees were assured that they would not lose jobs because of introduction of technologically advanced machinery or change in the production methods.

This resulted in reduced resistance for change on the part of employees. The employees became so involved in cost reduction efforts and activities that they started to volunteer various ways of improving operational efficiency including selection of equipment and machines. Various problem solving groups were formed for various operational Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? and in order to achieve efficient coordination among all the groups and activities, a linking-pin organizational structure was adopted, whereby members of various groups make decisions relative to their own tasks and these decisions are presented to the next higher level of management for consideration.

There are no time clocks and even though workers get paid on a salary basis, their working times are not closely watched or scrutinized. There is sufficient group cohesion so that the workers do not take undue advantage of these relaxed rules. If a member is late or absent for a good reason, other workers in the group will make up for his Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?. If some one misses work frequently, he becomes answerable to other group members.

The group selects its own leader and together the members set their own production goals within the general framework of the objectives of the organization and are responsible for meeting such goals. The company has formed a committee comprising representatives both from employees as well as management and the committee handles all personnel matters such as pay policies, fringe benefits and employee grievances.

Since the workers are represented in this committee, all decisions made by this committee are accepted by all. Pay scales are also recommended to the management by this committee and these are consistent with the industry practices. As per pay policies, the company is guaranteed a return of 5. Because of its reputation for employee treatment, it attracts a large number of applicants for jobs, but because the turnover rate is very low, the company can select the best from this pool of applicants.

The company is like a close-knit family and enjoys a reputation for productivity, quality and employee loyalty and dedication. Question 1: Does the success of the company reflect a general statement that profit sharing and employee involvement in company affairs is highly motivating for employees?

Explain your reasons in detail. Question 2: How do you think that the group dynamics is at work in this organization?

How the group goals are integrated with the organization goals? Question 3: Is the concept of worker participation in the management of the company equally applicable in the work Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? of Indian organizations? A day at an outlet in a mall in Sao Paulo provides some insights. The most notable characteristic of this fast food restaurant is the youth of the 12 employees. Silvana, who supervises the training of new hires, has had two promotions in her four years on the job.

Levy, the short order cook, is 20 and has been doing his job for a year. Simone is one of the oldest employees at 25. Middle-class kids in Brazil want to avoid working in fast-food places.

Employees seem generally content with their jobs. Question 4: How might technology change fast-food jobs over the next 10 years? Describe the different typical measures for quality, speed of delivery and flexibility.

Q2: Neotech Corporation is considering adding a new feature that will increase unit sales by 7. The profit is expected to increase by 23% of the increased sales. Should the new feature be added by the company? Q3: Amit drives his own car on company business.

His employer reimburses him for such travel at the rate of Rs. Amit estimates that his fixed costs per year such as taxes, insurance and depreciation are Rs. The direct or variable costs such as gas, oil and maintenance average about Rs. How many km must he drive to break even?

Q4: A small manufacturing facility is being planned that will feed parts to three heavy manufacturing facilities. The locations of the current plants with their coordinates and volume requirements are given in the following table: Use the centroid method to determine the best location for this new facility. Q5: What are the qualitative techniques used in forecasting?

Q2: What is the major difference between aggregate planning in manufacturing and aggregate planning in service? Q3: Madan Mathur is the supervisor of Legal Cop-Express, which provides copy services for downtown Los Angeles law firms. Five customers submitted their orders at the beginning of the week. Specific scheduling data are as follows: All orders require the use of the only color copy machine available.

Mathur must decide on the processing sequence for the five orders. The evaluation criterion is minimum flow time. It does not do the shopping or cook the dinner. Q5: Items purchased from a vendor cost Rs.

What quantity should be ordered each time? What is the total ordering cost for a year? What is the total storage cost for a year?

Calculate mean absolute deviation for each forecast and indicate which would seem to be most accurate. Q3: Discuss the purpose of and differences between p charts and R charts.

Q5: Describe the concepts of competitive priorities, competitive capabilities, order winners and order qualifiers. The samples and the number of defectives in each are shown in the following table: a. Develop a p chart for 95 percent confidence 1.

Based on the plotted data points, what comments can you make? The accompanying table shows the activities, times and sequences require: a.

What is the critical path? Suppose you want to shorten completion time as much as possible and you have the option of shortening any or all of B, C, D and G each one week. What is the new critical path and earliest completion time? In International Marketing it is imperative to create a relationship that holds value for the customers and for organization Discuss.

How does international environment play a role in International Trade? What are the International Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? Segments? Define factors determining the effectiveness of a political system Q5.

What are the various types of Quota? What do you understand by International Marketing Research? And types of International Marketing Research Q3. The main objective of all business is survival. How does a product strategy help in International business what are product design strategies Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?.

What role does pricing play in International Business? Explain factors affecting international pricing. Channel selections depend on distribution structure Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? choice of specific channel members. Adopting the right kind of promotional strategies is the most crucial issue of entering markets in many countries. Outline major issues in the New Export Import Policy in force Q3.

Define a letter of credit. What are the contents of letter of credit Q4. Explain in detail the procedure of conducting a export transaction Q5.

It cast three long shadows on the whiteboard that stood in the opposite corner, the diagrams on it from the last meeting only half- obliterated. The presence of just three people made the room seem larger than it was. Rajeev Kshirsagar - at 38, he was 10 years younger than his boss - was more casual; The third person, Arnab Roychowdhury, was trying hard to look older than his 30 years, which was I exactly the average age of senior consultants at Beninger Darkman. You haven't met Rajeev Kshirsagar, have you?

He is my right- hand man. Rajeev, Arnab is the bright young man whom Sam told me about. Arnab, we want to talk to you about a special vendor education programme that we have been running for over two years now. All these months, we thought that it was giving us — and our suppliers -great results. But, over the past few weeks, we have been getting feedback, some direct, some indirect, which suggests that we may have been exaggerating its success.

In fact, we may actually have been jeopardising our entire supply chain management process. And that's where we need your help Arnab Roychowdhury: All right. Could we start at the beginning? What is this special programme? Niyogi: Our Vendor Improvement Team conducts it. It is a sort of crash-course we devised to quickly bring our vendors up to global standards. A 7-member cross-functional team, made up of our manager s, offers intensive programmes in manufacturing techniques to our vendors - completely free of cost.

It is a parallel process to our regular vendor management programme. And it is really an intermittent effort, not a continuous one. You could think of it as a supplement to our official Vendor Development Programme. You know, manufacturing techniques and that kind of thing…………… Roychowdhury: Why isn't it part of your formal vendor development programme?

Rajeev Kshirsagar: May I take that, Gautam? You see, Arnab, we're doing this not just for ourselves. Nichita, our Japanese partner, is also using our efforts as a laboratory. If we're successful, they'll ask their companies in other countries to use the same method. If you ask me why they started with us, it is, probably, because our supplier-base is pretty undeveloped.

So, it is a good testing ground for a new system. In fact, that is why they took special care to train two of our engineers for 9 weeks, so that they could then come and train our vendors in Japanese systems. But we weren't sure if it would work. We started out carefully too. And it has always been optional. Of course, we have gone on to cover close to 50 vendors now, but we are not sure whether we should continue. Once a vendor firm has agreed, we begin with a half-day presentation to its senior managers, where we try to allay their apprehensions - especially about additional costs, investments, or disruptions - and get them to commit themselves to the.

Kshirsagar tried to relive that session 2 years ago……. The Assessment is discussed with the suppliers senior management, and used to identify areas of concern and targets for improvement.

Although based on the tools, techniques and experience of Nichita in Japan, the programme has been tailored to meet the specific needs of Indian suppliers. The next step is the formation of an Improvement Team comprising the supplier's own people.

It includes operators and supervisors from the relevant production area as well as from maintenance, process Engineering, quality, and, sometimes, administration. Next, targets for improvement are established. The team leader prepares Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? ground for the activity by briefing the members, and making the necessary resources available.

The first week is devoted to training. During the second week, the team splits into smaller groups to analyse and discuss the various processes to be improved. The groups use a combination of hard data and subjective opinions to identify the roots of the problem, and arrive at possible solutions.

In the third week, the individual groups reconvene as a team. The team makes a flow-diagram of each process so that everyone appreciates what is involved, and agrees on the changes that will bring the best benefits. The data that has been collected by the groups is analysed by the entire team.

The period between the fourth and the eighth weeks is spent on implementation. Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? also discusses the outstanding issues and concerns, and potential improvement projects. The final task is to make a presentation to senior managers, describing the changes achieved and the benefits gained. Just to refresh your memory, which I know is in top gear first thing in the morning, that is the joint venture between Nichita and Indian Automotives. It is the Indians who run the show here.

Nichita only gives them the designs, the technology; and the systems and techniques. All I know is that Niyogi called me last night, and said he was worried stiff about a vendor improvement programme they are conducting at the behest of their Japanese partners. You have to go and find out what the trouble is. Indo- Nichita had begun manufacturing cars in 1994 at a plant near Bhopal.

Indian Automotive two-wheeler plant was at Chennai. Check Indo-Nichita was a steady, but not spectacular performer since it had managed to increase sales by only about 15 cent every year. And - how could he forget? I mean, which manufacturer doesn't do some kind of work in collaboration with its suppliers these days? For such changes to really work, it has to be part of the vendors overall strategy, right?

So we have to Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? involved in their strategy. But that implies that they have to open up their entire business to us so that we can work together. And that is making our vendors suspicious. They think we want to control them, and rob them off their customer so that they become completely dependent on us.

Okay, may be all of them don't think that way. But there is some resistance. And that putting many of our relationships at risk, which is something we are worried about. Of course, all our contacts with our vendors are long-term. And we chose them after assessing their abilities, and setting cost and quality targets - not through tendering or anything like that.

But if we come across as big brother to our suppliers, we are in trouble……. Roychowdhury: I must ask an obvious question. I presume you must be having some kind of measure for checking how well your vendors are doing, and how efficiently your supply chain is working. Kshirsagar: To be honest, it isn't easy to say. When Indo-Nichita started out in 1994,1 understand that the average vendor rating wis 35 on a scale of 100.

We actually want to set-off a continuous improvement process. But we are not really sure how much momentum is being sustained after those 10 weeks. We have no monitoring of that. For all I know, there'll be no long-term impact. Kshirsagar: And then there's another fear I have although I must add, Gautam doesn't share my views here.

I'm not sure any more. Should it be linked to the vendor's strategy? Should its coverage be extended to. Should it now be improved, or discarded?

But the tale kept to the script. Revenues in the quarter ended September 2003 stoodat Rs 92. Profit margins were in the range of 20 per cent, despite cutthroat competition. All the goals that Roy and his team had set for Spectramind at the outset wer exceeded well ahead of deadline.

Surely, you cant write a story better than that. As more and more global companies want to cut costs, they take to outsourcing and turn to India. Roy started with a 980-seat facility at Delhi's Okhla Industrial Estate. Gradually, the facility got filled up, and then it Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

spilt over. When business began to get squeezed, these companies were forced to look at other revenue streams. It was then that Wipro Technologies found Spectramind.

Roy and other employees, who held about 20 per cent of Spectramind, also made a pile of cash in the deal: So Roy was back in the role of an employee from that of an entrepreneur, in the company he had founded. Perceptible change in Roy now is that he is wary about forecasts. But his enthusiasm and passion for the sector and Spectramind is still intact.

Becoming Wipro Spectramind from Spectramind has done a world of difference to the company. Spectramind provides services to clients in six geographies across industries such as financial services, information technology, insurance, travel and hospitality and retail, among others.

The present seat utilisation at Spectramind is 1. A strong management team is a key differentiating factor at Spectramind. Most officials who started out with Roy have stayed put. Apart from Roy, the other key officials at Spectramind are Sanjay Joshi, Vice-Chairman, Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? is in charge of sales and marketing, Devashish Ghosh, Chief Operating Officer both Ghosh and Joshi came from WiproRaj Dutta, Chief Financial Officer; S Varadarajan, Vice-President Talent Engagement and Development and Nilanjana Paul, Vice- President, New Business Development.

This team has also been able to cope with the problems caused by rapid growth. For this purpose, Spectramind has created strategic business units, which are run as independent companies by Vice-Presidents. However; the parentage of Wipro should come in handy here too, as the company is used to over 40 per cent growth for the past so many years. It remains to be seen, however, whether such freedom will continue to exist in the future as well.

As the company grows larger, more bureaucracy could influence its managerial structure. Some time ago, an industry expert said that one significant shortcoming of Spectramind was the inadequate management attention to smaller accounts. Only 26 people were working on this project. Also, Spectramind stopped working on the human Genomics project, which it once used to highlight as an example of high end, complex work the company is capable of delivering.

Here too, only a small team was involved. But as long as large deals flow in, there may not be reasons for worry. Another area of concern for the company is the lack of an international footprint. But Spectramind is understood to be on the lookout for setting up operations overseas and an announcement in this regard is in the offing. Who knows, another three years from now, it may be a completely different story.

Explain the role export credit plays in export promotion in India How is the export credit delivery system in India implemented Q2. Outline various risks covered under standard policy Q3.

What do you understand by current account and capital account convertibility Q4. How is a letter of credit transacted? Explain in detail various types of letter of credit Q5. Does Cargo Insurance play a role in Export Transaction? Outline in detail the claims procedure for a export cargo Q2. As goods exported are in foreign countries, highlight the major standard clauses of export order Q3. The Indian Exporters are given certain foreign exchange facilities outline the same Q4.

What do you understand by foreign exchange. Explain different types of possible exchange rate regimes? Export finance is important to be competitive do you agree with this statement. What are the means of short term financing? Outline need of export documentation Explain major shipping documents needed in export Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

Q3. Explain major steps required in custom clearance of export shipment Q4. What is the role of clearing and forwarding agents in international trade Q5.

Nonetheless, it puts an end to the archaic system of sending businessmen and managers to jail for civil offences. The substitute of financial penalties is better even though the quantum of penalty does not reflect the low national cost of generating foreign exchange.

Welcoming the new Act, Fieo Chief, Navratan Samdria, has said that the new Act recognises the export contract. There are no artificial limits in the law for agency commission or buyer claims. The actual incidence of these is left to market forces. Agency commission in the case of rupee trade is, however, not allowed. The invoice value is no longer sacrosanct; it is a mere reflection of the consignment at the time of drawing upJhe bill.

The actual value of goods is a function of time and place, the actual sale proceeds depend upon the market situation. They are fixed to the invoice values and bank realisation certificates and do not wish to hear anything else. On the import side, authorised dealers have been given permission to make remittances for all genuine transactions.

In case of doubts on the authenticity' of the transaction, dealers have the right to refuse to deal with the importers, provided they do so in writing. For credit below 180 days, no permission is required and the dealer can straight away send out the amount. The decision is left to the authorised dealer who must deal with each situation according to the ground level facts and circumstances.

Concerns of good security were topmost in the minds of the commerce ministry negotiators. They are looking for ideal tariff rate, which meets the interests of the Indian producers and consumers without compromising food security.

Anybody can visit the site in the nic. Suggestions and views can be sent on the Internet at the Webmaster address. The views will also build the consensus on reform in agriculture. The measure reimburses the duties suffered by the deemed export on the fast track route.

The brand rate alternative requires verification of the actual duty paid. The revenue department has slapped a stiff anti-dumping duty on sodium cyanide imports. The final duty is Rs 68. The 16 per cent countervailing duty to compensate for the excise duty suffered by domestic goods must also be paid on the anti-dumping duty.

In other words, another Rs 10. The short paid provisional duties will also be recovered as the customs shoot the demand letter out. Question 2: Assume that the factory has two machines. Past records show that Machine 1 produces 30 per cent of the output.

If an item selected at random is found to be defective, what is the probability that it was produced by Machine 2. Question 3: Gati India Ltd. Maintains Kilometer records on all of its rolling equipment.

Here are weekly kilometer records of its trucks. B Calculate the mean for 20 truck. C Compare part a and part b and explain which one is better measure of central tendency of the data. It has recently conducted a cost Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?. The manger cost accounting has collected the figures of the total cost and its major constituents. The information collected as percentage of expenditure is shown below.

Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

Represent the Data with the help of a suitable diagram. Question 3: The two regression coefficients byx and bxy are either both be positive or both be negative. Do you agree with this statement. Question 4: The equations of two regression lines obtained in a correlation analysis are given below. Under what circumstances would secondary data be more useful than primary data. Two are drawn out together. One of them is tested and found to be good. What is the probability that the other one is also good?

On a midterm exam, the scores were distributed normally with mean of 72 and standard deviation of 10. Student Wright scored in the top 10 percent of the class on the midterm.

Question 4: The final exam also had a normal distribution, but with mean of 150 and standard deviation of 15. At least what score should Wright get in order to keep the same ranking i. Question 5: What do you mean by trend analysis? Differentiate between secular trend and cyclic fluctuation.

He wants to improve customer service and change employee scheduling as far as necessary, based on the expected number of daily customers in the feature. The following Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

represent the daily number of customers as recorded by the manager for the last four weeks. How many lamps will fail before 900 hours? How many lamps will fail between 950 and 1000 hours? What proportion of lamps will fail before 925 hours? Given the same mean lifewhat would the standard deviation have to be ensure that no more than 20% of lamps fail before 916 hours?

A watch company want to display 5 different models of watches. Create a web page which includes Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? different layers for all the watch models. There are 5 hyperlinks on bottom of the page representing name of all models. As user mouse moves over the hyperlink, a particular layer associated with that link should appear, otherwise all layers must remain invisible.

What is the difference in Client side and Server side languages? A job placement company hosted a web site for online submission of resumes by various candidates. The fields in form may include: Name, Address, age, email, phone, mobile, qualification details, previous experience details, etc. Why Application and session variables declared in Global. Using Send Mail Component Or any other Mail Componentcreate a web page to send mails. An educational institute want to implement online result system.

The student can feed its rollno and course on the web site to see it marks details in order of various subjects. More ever administrator of the web site can edit and add marks through web interface of the site. Differentiate between Client side and server side scripting. What is web server and name any three web servers? Explain how to use delimiter.

Add a registration page using the registration template to allow users to add themselves to the discussion group. They decided to integrate all departments in all the manufacturing units situated in different countries by hosting a dedicated web site with dedicated database server. To start with they decided to put sales and distribution department online. Define each of the following terms: single inheritance, multiple inheritance, interface, superclass and subclass.

Discuss why casting a superclass reference to a subclass reference is potentially dangerous multiple inheritance? What feature of Java helps realize the benefits of multiple inheritance? Distinguish between non-abstract methods and abstract methods. Write a recursive method power base, exponent that when invoked returns base exponent Q5. Selection sort searches an array for the smallest element in the array.

Then, the smallest element is swapped with the first element of the array. The process is repeated for the subarray beginning with the second element of the array. Each pass of the array results in one element being placed in its proper Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?. This sort has a performance comparably to the bubble sort-for an array n elements, n-1 passes must be made, and for each subarray, n-1 comparisons must be made to find the smallest value.

When the subarray being processed contains one element, the array is sorted. Write a recursive method selection Sort to perform this algorithm. Use a static class variable to store the annual interest Rate for each of the savers.

Each object of the class contains a private instance variable savingsBalance indicating the amount the saver currently has on deposit. Provide method CalculateMonthlyInterest to calculate the monthly interest by multiplying the balance by annual interest Rate divided by 12; this interest should be added to savingBalance. Provide a static method modifyInterestRate that sets the annual interest Rate to a new value.

Set annual interest Rate to 4%, then calculate the monthly interest and print the new balances for each of the savers. Then set the annual interest Rate to 5% and calculate the next month's interest and print the new balances for each of the savers. Explain the advantage of object oriented model over traditional programming model. Define each of the following terms: single inheritance, multiple inheritance, interface, superclass and subclass.

Discuss why casting a superclass reference to a subclass reference is potentially dangerous multiple inheritance? What feature of Java helps realize the benefits of multiple inheritance? Distinguish between non-abstract methods and abstract methods.

You are asked to develop your own spell-checker utility. We make suggestions to help get you started. You should then consider adding more capabilities. Use a computerized dictionary if you have access to one as a source of words. Sometimes we double-type a letter accidentally e. Sometimes we type a nearby key instead of the one we intended e. Design and implement a spell-checker applet in Java. Your program should maintain an array wordList of strings.

Enable the user to enter these strings. Once you have these capabilities, you can obtain the words for the spell checker from a computerized dictionary stored in a file.

Your program should ask a user to enter a word. The program should then look up that word in the wordList array. If the word is present in the array, your program should print 'Word is spelled correctly. Implement other tests such as replacing each double letter with a single Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? and any other test you can develop to improve the value of your spell checker. Question 4: How to repos and reverse repos affect liquidity?

Question 5: Explain the bought-out deal. Question 2: What is meant by book building issue? Question 4: Explain the various types of financial instruments.

Question 5: What are fixed —income securities? Fair value of the assets Rs. The following are the conditions of the lease: b. Life of the assets is 5 years, residual value is 52,500.

Nissan Skyline GT

Show how this transaction would be recorded in the books of Hyderabad Ltd. Define the venture capital business and explain its features. What is a finance lease?

How is it different from other type of lease? It has 3000 shares outstanding. The merger is decided to be Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?. What is the Exchange Ratio? Question 2: How did Buddhist and Jain Philosophies influence the thoughts and actions of Mahatma Gandhi. Question 2: What are the ethical questions involved in commercial advertising broadcast through the electronic media?

The telecom minister, A Raja was forced to resign and the Prime Minister Dr Manmohan Singh has been asked to explain himself to the Supreme Court.

Opposition parties want a full parliamentary probe and have blocked proceedings until the government relents. So, what is the controversy all about and what Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

it mean for the telecom sector and companies? The national Auditor General said that the allocation process did not reflect the correct value of radio spectrum as there was no auction and the entire process was flawed, benefiting selected companies. The Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? General said that the telecom ministry did not do the requisite due diligence, granting 85 out of the 122 licences to ineligible applicants.

The auditor said that several companies deliberately suppressed facts, disclosed incomplete information, submitted fictitious documents and used fraudulent means to get licences and thereby access to spectrum. The auditor said that units of Unitech Ltd, which received licences in 2008 and now operates services in a joint Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? with Norway's Telenor, had not fulfilled eligibility conditions including required share capital.

Other firms which were ineligible according to the auditor include Loop Telecom, Videocon Telecommunications and S Tel Ltd. It is still too early to know whether any licences would be cancelled, but the pressure would be strong not to do so because operators have invested in networks and have subscribers.

Any big crackdown could send a wrong signal to investors. But the government could ask operators to compensate for the potential revenue loss as highlighted by the auditor and may impose fines Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? not meeting separate rollout obligations. How many Telecom licenses were issued and how many were found ineligible? What was the potential loss of revenue to the nation?

How does this case fall under the category of white collar crime? How did these companies violate the principles of Business Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility? Give reasons for your answer, by citing suitable illustrative examples.

Question 2: What is the position of a contract with or by a minor? Question 4: Explain with examples the doctrine of supervening impossibility. Question 5: Differentiate between Sale and Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

to sell. Question 2: What is a company? Question 4: Explain Doctrine of Ultravires. Question 5: What is a prospectus? Why is it considered a sacred document? What are legal remedies for dishonor of cheque?

Question 2: Give various types of Intellectual Property in detail. Question 3: Who is a consumer? Give pecuniary jurisdiction of consumer forums. Question 4: Explain competition law in detail. It was only later that he came to know that it was even conservatively estimated to be worth at least Rs 25 lakh. Thereupon, Bachchan filed a suit against Sandeep to perform the valid contract entered into between them. What are the chances of Bachchan winning the case?

Give reasons for your answer. But, in the rel ative agreement document the rental was, by mistake, typed as Rs 12,000 per month, instead.

In your expert opinion, will this agreement be held valid, voidable or void? Give reasons for your answer. Q2: Explain characteristics of a liability. Q3: Analyse the following transactions and events, and identify debit-credit giving reasons: i. Mahesh started business with cash Rs.

Y at 10% profit on cost. Q5: How many types of journals are there explain them. Section B Q1: Explain advantages of day book. Q2: On 31st March, 2014, Pass Book showed a balance of Rs.

Prepare a Bank Reconciliation Statement from the following particulars: 1. On 28th March, 2014, cheques were issued amounting to Rs. Interest on investment collected by bank does not appear in the Cash Book Rs. Explain the dates which are relevant when accounting for dividends.

Q2: Write a short note on cash and cash equivalents. Q4: Cash is the lifeblood of business. How cash flow information helps users? Q5: Explain revenue based, assets based and capital based profitability ratios. Depreciation charged on fixed assets was Rs. An interim dividend of 15% was paid. Additional shares were issued on 31-03-14. Preference shares were redeemed at a premium of 15%.

Fixed assets with a book value of Rs. What are the stages in the development of groups? What is a well-functioning group? What are the characteristics of a mature group? How does it differ from a group? What is the managerial grid? Contrast its approach to leadership with the approach of the Ohio State and Michigan groups.

Leadership is the driving force which gets thing done by others. Explain the various techniques used by organizations to empower their employees. Explain the self-theory and evaluate it with examples.

What are the functions of counselling? What are the drawbacks of counselling? Explain the various frameworks for understanding human behavior. Explain in detail the process of brainstorming for making innovative decisions.

Is entertaining wild ideas justified when it is so time consuming and the success of these ideas is so uncertain? What are the major reasons individuals resist change? How can organizations deal with such resistance? Who plays the role of a change agent? Explain the various types of change agents. Give the advantages and disadvantages of internal and external change agents. He had worked for the Institution ever since he received his degree 15 years earlier and he was clearly recognized as one of the best researchers in the area.

He spent many hours keeping up on the current literature, and he knew how to set up tight research designs. Knowledgeable about space research, he had a reputation for sticking to his guns about how specific research studies should be conducted. He believed that if something was not done well, it should not be done at all. A number of his discoveries had saved the company of millions of dollars in foreign exchange.

His colleagues frequently came to him for advice about how to proceed on various projects. He was convinced about the correctness of his advice. In short Vinod was a star in the organization.

The decision about his successor was in the hands of Dr. Roney recommended Vinod because of his record of his outstanding service. The new position required large amounts of administrative work and less research. Arun discussed some of these issues with Vinod. He would no longer be in charge of specific research projects, but because everyone came to him for advice, he could still be actively involved in research.

Vinod thought long about the offer. The promotion meant more money and recognition. It was not long before things started to go wrong. First, of all, Vinod had more difficulty keeping up with the literature. Other priorities seemed to always interfere with his reading time. He also noticed a distinct cooling in the way his colleagues treated him. Om a few cases his advice was not followed.

He also got into a number of arguments with Dr. In many cases he demanded more financial support from Dr. Arun to conduct various research projects in the way he felt it should be done. It got to the point where almost every interaction between the two resulted in an argument. Arun knew that something had to be changed. He went to Vinod and told him that he had to 1 compromise more and accept the realities of his job. Why do you think Vinod was not successful at this job?

Why did problems start to occur between Vinod and his colleagues? How should this process of selection have been conducted?

He had with him a Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? of young, exuberant and talented professionals, who are gifted but inexperienced. His first issue is greeted with much acclaim by the readers. However, he soon finds himself shorn of new ideas and the subsequent magazine sales dwindle. He tries to find solutions to the problem but to no avail.

One day, he is watching a talk show Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? a television programme where the host talks about the benefits of group discussion. The next day he duly brings together five of his best employees in the conference room and indulges in a two hour session of brainstorming to find the solutions to the magazines problems.

The meeting is a success. The ideas initially border on the absurd and even downright hilarious, but later on, as the session progresses, they manage to come up with some novel ideas. The subsequent issues are full of life and are well appreciated by the readers Questions: 1.

What are the benefits of brainstorming? Question 2: What is the difference between Information Systems and Information Technology? Question 3: What is the difference between data and information? Question 4: Why information is considered as Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

for organizations? Question 5: Give three examples of versions of software products that you are aware off? Question 2: What is e-governance? How is it different from e-commerce? Question 3: What are the first, second and third order effect of Information systems when introduced in modern organizations? Question 4: How does workplace monitoring effect workers?

Question 5: How can e-waste be managed in organizations? Question 2: What is the difference between viruses and worms? Question 3: What is cracking? Question 4: Identify the stages of the waterfall model and describe their main goals.

Question 5: What is the need for data management? Why is it difficult to manage data? Institutional Securities, Asset management, Retail Brokerage and Discover were the four segments of Morgan Stanley. The merger altered the working environment of Morgan Stanley and created a divide in employee acceptance of the Retail brokerage segment. It did not integrate well with the firm partly due to the information systems being different to the rest of the company.

Many brokers resigned, taking with them valuable portfolios and profits. In June 2005 Purcell resigned, and John Mack provided new leadership. The firm then began to change its information systems and provide better services for clients, which saw stronger ethos and integrity within the employees. The new leadership at Morgan Stanley instigated change, and the realization that the Company must grow to keep up with the competition in the financial services industry.

Not only did technology need overhauling within all the segments, but management and organizational changes were also required. It was also forced to make a significant upgrade to its website.

Prior to 2005 Morgan Stanley had no economic advantage, now with changes implemented in a competitive industry such as Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

Morgan Stanley's strength of employees, global product range and leading market share for Institutional Securities, Global Wealth Management and Asset Management has the firm making strong profits Questions: 1.

Why did Morgan Stanley underinvest in Information Technology? It has grown to become one of the largest Internet retailers on earth. In fact, the two are closely connected at Amazon: its business innovations are all driven by huge investments in information systems. In 1995, former investment banker Jeff Bezos took advantage of new business opportunities created by the Internet by setting up a Web site to sell books directly to customers online.

There were three million titles in print, and any one physical bookstore could only stock a fraction of them. Amazon tried to provide superior customer service through e- mail and telephone customer support, automated order confirmation, online tracking and shipping information, and the ability to pay for purchases with a single click of the mouse using credit card and personal information a customer had provided during a previous purchase.

Its offerings grew to include electronics, toys, home improvement products, video games, apparel, gourmet food, travel services, personal care, and jewelry. To service these new product lines, Amazon significantly expanded its warehouse and distribu tion capabilities and hired large numbers of employees.

Nordstrom, The Gap, and Target stores use Amazon to sell their goods and then pay Amazon commissions and fees. Amazon refined its business model further to focus more on efficient operations while maintaining a steady commitment to keeping its 49 million customers satisfied.

In early 2001, Amazon closed two of its eight warehouses, laid off 15 percent of its workforce, and consolidated orders from around the country prior to shipping to reduce shipping costs. Amazon used six sigma quality measures to reduce errors in fulfillment.

These measures reduced fulfillment costs from 15 percent of revenue in 2000 to 10 percent by 2003. Amazon finally became profitable in 2003 and remains an online retailing powerhouse growing at over 60 percent a year! Amazon Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

the dry goods grocery business in 2006. But Amazon faces powerful online retail competitors such as eBay and Yahoo! Google is emerging as a competitor because so many consumers use its search engine. What are the competitive business strategies of amazon. What is the future of Amazon? Differentiate between Expatriation and Repatriation in detail.

What are the major sources of cultural differences? Why do international managers need to understand cultural differences and adjust their style accordingly? Discuss the methods used to select expatriates. What are the major concerns for selecting employees for expatriate assignments? Elaborate upon the reasons for using international assignments. What is Cost of Living Allowance?

Explain the reasons behind the same and elaborate on some of the concerns in deciding the amount for the same. Describe the challenges being faced and outline potential solutions. Discuss the emerging trends in industrial relations from the organization's point of view.

Advantages of using a standardized performance appraisal form 4. Problems of dual-career couples 5. Expatriation as a tool for managerial development 6. Today, Green Giant employs fewer than 150 people in Watsonville, California and over 850 in Irapuato, Mexico and in California as a whole, roughly one-half of all frozen-food processing firms have gone south, taking over 16,000 jobs with them.

An estimated 40 percent of all frozen vegetables sold in the United States are now imported from Mexico. The economic benefits for Green Giant's move to Mexico are immense. With fringe benefits that raise the Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? by almost 60 percent, Green Giant's wages are slightly above the local rate, and unsuccessful union organizers have had to admit that the company's workers are quite content.

Still, their income allows them only a very minimal standard of living and Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? short of the guarantee in the Mexican constitution of a minimum wage sufficient to support a wife and children. The job gains in Mexico benefit the new hires at Green Giant, which is known locally as Gigante Verde, and the Mexican economy as a whole receives a needed boost, not only from the foreign investment but also from the exposure to more advanced technology.

The Green Giant facility in Irapuato pumps more than half a million gallons of well water each day, and the water table, which used to be between 30 and 60 feet, is now over 450 feet.

Few local residents can afford to drill wells that deep, and so most are forced to rely on the heavily polluted Guanajualo River. The use of well water to process vegetables protects American consumers from contaminants in the river but increases the health hazards for the citizens of Irapuato. American companies are not required to observe U. Although Green Giant claims to operate by the same standards on both sides of the border, the record of many other companies is not as clean.

In macquiladora plants, which receive special tax treatment, sweatshop conditions are known to prevail, and toxic wastes — which, by law, should be shipped back to the United States for proper disposal now pollute the Rio Grande. What are the advantages to Green Giant in moving to Mexico? What are the ethical responsibilities of Green Giant towards the citizens and workers at Irapuato?

Does Green Giant discharge them effectively? He is also an example of a multicultural corporate leader. Carlos Ghosn was born in Brazil to Lebanese parents. He then moved to Lebanon, and went on to France to study in top engineering schools there. He is fluent in Arabic, Portuguese, French, and English. He can also speak Japanese. Carlos Ghosn began his career with the French tyre manufacturer Michelin where he worked for 18 years.

He joined the French Renault Group in 1996.

Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

Ghosn is credited with the remarkable turnaround of Nissan. He shut down many of Nissan's ailing plants and laid-off workers. These were steps unheard of in Japan, where lifetime employment is the norm. However, he did not take these steps unilaterally. Ghosn went through a long process of 'sense-making', talking to over one thousand Nissan employees and other stakeholders and established cross-functional teams to tackle issues.

He used both a 'top-down' and a 'bottom-up' approach. Carlos Ghosn was termed as 'Le Cost Cutter' at Renault, France, and 'the Samurai' in Nissan, Japan, for being very efficient in reducing costs and increasing profitability. He is greatly admired in Japan and even has a manga comic written on Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?, which is called The True Story of Carlos Ghosn.

Ghosn is said to get the sort of adulation in Japan normally reserved for rock stars and football players. He is often mobbed by fans asking for his autograph. He has won numerous awards including the Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire.

He has been nominated 'Man of the Year' by several institutions. In spite of being a globally admired business leader, Carlos Ghosn is not a single-minded manager. Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? is also a family man. He is reputed to have said that one the biggest honours he received in his life was being named as 'Father of the Year' by a Japanese community group in 2001.

Comment on the strategies used by Ghosn in turning Nissan around. Question 2: Brands have physical as well as psychological features, explain with the help of an example. Question 3: Mention branding of any three categories which have transitioned from commodities to brands. Question 4: What are the various symbols used in branding? What should be the elements of good symbol? Question 5: Why firm use brand ambassadors? How does it contribute to brand equity? Question 2: Why did Nissan Micra fail in India?

is strategic brand management process? Question 3: Elaborate brand identity of Star Bucks in India, with the help of brand identity model. Question 4: What is brand equity? What are the major components of brand equity? Question 5: Differentiate between revitalization and reinforcement of the brands, with the help of the relevant examples from your everyday life. Question 2: How is service branding different from product brandingexplain with the help of examples.

Question 3: What is co branding? What type of companies can draw benefit from co branding. Also mention different types of co branding. Question 4: How can we value brands? Discuss with examples of recent brand acquisitions. Question 5: Discuss the threat posed by private labels to manufacturer brands. While this would be Revlon's first India-specific brand, it would also mark a detour from Revlon's premium positioning.

With the launch of Color n Care, it is targeting a 15% market share in the first year. The new brand would be promoted through a mix of mass media campaigns and in-store promotions through its beauty advisors. For Modi Revlon, about 20% of its revenue comes from the hair colour business.

It has a 12% market share of the total hair colour market. Explain brand strategy of Revlon. Critically analyze firms brand structure. What challenges you foresee for the firm? Amul entered delhi market five years back and in 2011 with in a span on 4years it defeated mother dairy in terms of market share. Amul procures fresh milk and packages it. Mother dairy adds powder milk in its products to the tune of 40%. This spoils the taste of the product. Also Amul is credited with more awareness and knowledge about its products amongst consumers.

Amul is a leader in the ice cream segment of the country. Losing ground to Amul in 2011 in the milk segment is forcing company to rethink its strategy. They plan to increase their capacity and also expand procurement of the milk. One of the regions why consumer shifted to Amul has been difference in the taste of the milk. Amul milk is fresh where as a portion of mother dairy milk is reconstituted. Mother dairy sells through its own outlets and home delivery is not possible where as Amul used channel and home delivery of the milk is possible.

Now Mother dairy is restructuring its strategy Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? systems to combat Amul. What would you suggest to Mother Dairy for its revitalization plan. Develop brand identity model for Mother Dairy after collecting additional information for the brand. Cyber Laws Q1: Case Study Compulsory. Swan is in the business of publishing books, e-books, internet blogs for writers, various other internet publications etc.

The Memorandum of Association of Swan permits any other business to be done by the company. Swan applies to the Controller of Certifying Authority to become a certifying authority since it is in business of publishing electronic books and has various electronic writers' blogs who wish to transact online and thus would be more comfortable in applying to Swan for digital signature certificate than to any other certifying authority.

The Controller of Certifying authority gave a one year license to Swan. One of the creditors of the company wants to liquidate the company and applies to the High Court in this regard. Each answer carries 5 marks.

What is the role of jurisprudence in shaping the positive law? What are the salient features of Indian Constitution? Can it be stated that Internet is providing free flow of information and thus giving force to Freedom of Speech and Expression under the Indian Constitution. Write a brief note on: a Whether Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? software has to be patented or copyrighted or both b Electronic Signature E-Commerce, E-Taxation and Regulatory Paradigm 1.

What do you mean by e-contracts? Give its essentials and types. Explain with illustrations the process of communication in on-line media.

Discuss vicarious liability, inducement and contributory infringement in case of e-commerce. Refer to a leading case on this point. Write short notes on any 5: a. Does copyright exist in compilation? Does copyright exist in them?

What is there importance in e-commerce development? Proprietary Software and Open source Software j. Write short notes on any 4: i What is online advertising? What do you understand by the term 'Internet Protocol'? Describe the commonly used protocols that help in high-performance network communication.

Describe the various networking components and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of the different types of network topology. What is the significance of the 'master slide' while creating a presentation in PowerPoint? Explain the process of performing the following actions in an Excel spreadsheet: entering formulas, formatting cells, text wrapping, data filtering Why did Nissan Micra fail in India? creating scenarios. In what ways do you think the Windows operating system has improved over the years?

What do you understand by the term 'operating system'? What are the different classifications for computer languages? What are the different elements of 'Multimedia'? In what ways does it improve interactivity? Is it true that by increasing the processor speed, or clock speed one can improve the performance of a computer?

Give reasons to support your answer. What are the different characteristics of a computer that make it a 'must have' in today's environment? Also the multiservice network has innovative and state-of-the-art applications, supported on the network. The network enables the flow of modern teaching methods, and also allows the students to learn more from the network itself, as it deploys the latest and the proven Internet technologies, that a management and computer technology learning Institute can benefit from.

Discuss the features of a high-speed multiservice network. What network topology is most suitable for the above network? Give reasons to support your answer. How can you protect the above network from unauthorized access from outsiders and prevent own users from accessing undesired websites? What great opportunities are offered by Internet-based technologies for the society in general and specifically for teachers and the student community?

What are the various methods of connecting to the Internet? What connectivity do you recommend for the above network that has integrated 700 nodes? At Bergan, as at many other companies, information systems staffers are increasingly tapping into online networks like CompuServe and the Internet as a place to fetch software patches from vendors or to monitor discussion forums on the latest technical developments on myriad computing and networking subjects.

Using the 'Net' to search for employees is also a growing trend. He posts especially thorny technical problems in the relevant Usenet discussion groups and watches for the best replies, then sends them an e-mail message. The company also collects weekly work bids from the government, 'which we pass along-salespeople. How do you envision people in other business areas marketing, finance etc. What sort of Usenet discussion groups is being referred to in the above case?

What do you mean by 'downloading software patches? What types of information systems are used by organizations? What role does information play in decision-making? Explain the need for information management.

Discuss how information systems relate to business strategies. Explain the various information models. Explain the different decision-making models. What role do information systems play in such firms? What is meant by supply chain management? Why is it necessary for an organization?

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