Question: Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?


Oberwesel celebrates the Rhine in Flames in early September with a music-synchronous fireworks display. Around 50 ships decorated with colourful lights travel from St.

The force of nature could no further go: To make a third, she joined the other two. How few even of educated men can affirm that they have so read and understood it, as to appreciate all its parts?

How does this happen Is the poem considered unworthy of their most careful perusal? Is it not inviting to the intellect, the imagination, and the sensibilities? Is it not acknowledged to be superior to any other poetic composition, the Hebrew writings only excepted, to whose lofty strains of inspired song the blind bard of London was s greatly indebted for his own subordinate inspiration? If inquiry should extensively be made, it will be ascertained that Paradise Lost, is but little read, less understood, and still less appreciated; though it may be found on the shelves of almost every library, or upon the parlor table of almost every dwelling.

The question returns, and it is one of some literary interest, how is this treatment of the Paradise Lost to be accounted for? To this inquiry the following observations will, it is hoped, be considered appropriate and satisfactory.

The perusal of it cannot fail to be attended with a vivid impression of its great author's prodigious learning, and of the immense stores which he brought into use in its preparation. The most amazing copiousness of learning is sublimated into all his conceptions and descriptions.

His learning never oppressed his imagination; and his imagination never obliterated or dimmed his learning; but even these would not have done without the addition of a great heart, and a pure and Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? mind. The poem is one which could not have been produced solely by the genius of Milton, without the addition of an equal extent and depth of learning, and an equal labor of reflection.

It has always a great compression. Perhaps its perpetual allusion to all past literature and history were sometimes carried a little too far for the popular reader; and the latinised style requires to be read with the attention due to an ancient classic.

While large portions of the poem are sufficiently lucid for the comprehension of ordinary readers, there is frequently introduced an obscure paragraph, sentence, clause, or word; which serves to break up the continuity of the poem in the reader's mind, to obstruct his progress, to apprise him of his own ignorance or obtuseness, and thus to create no small degree of dissatisfaction.

It is somewhat hard but it is all sincere: it is not vernacular, but has a latinised cast, which requires a little time to reconcile a reader to it.

It is best fitted to convey his own magnificent ideas; its very learnedness impresses us with respect. It moves with a gigantic step: it does not flow like Shakspeare's style, nor dance like Spenser's. Now and then there are transpositions somewhat alien to the character of the English language, which is not well calculated for transposition; but in Milton this is perhaps a merit, because his lines are pregnant with deep thought and sublime imagery which requires us to dwell upon them, and contemplate them over and over.

He ought never to be read rapidly. Much of it, as we have remarked, cannot be understood; it abounds in too many passages that convey to none but the learned any cleai idea: thus the common reader is repelled, and the sublimities and beauties of this incomparable poem are known only as echoes from the pages of criticism, of course inadequately.

Not long since even a well-educated and popular preacher was asked how he managed in reading Paradise Lost? His honest and truthful answer was, that he skipped over the hard places, and read the easier; that he did not pretend fully to understand, or to appreciall, the entire Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? but admitted that not a few passages were not far from being Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? dead letter to him, requiring for their just interpretation more research and study than he was willing or able to bestow.

It is possible also that the pious spirit which animates the entire poem, and the theological descriptions which abound in several of the Books, may, to the mass of readers, give it a repulsive aspect, and cause them, though unwisely, to prefer other productions in which these elements are not found.

To the causes now enumerated, rather than to those assigned by Dr. None ever wished it longer than it is. Its perusal is a duty rather than a pleasure. We read Milton for instruction, retire harrassed and overburdened, and look elsewhere for recreation: we desert our master, and seek for companions. May not something be done to prepare American readers generally to appreciate it, and, in the perusal, to gratify their intellects and regale their fancy, among its grandeurs and beauties, and also among its learned allusions,' and s ientific informations 1 The attainment of this important end is the design of the present edition: it is therefore furnished with a large body of notes; -with notes sufficiently numerous and full, it is Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, to clear up the obscurities to which we have referred; to place the unlearned reader, so far as the possession of the information requisite to understand the poem is concerned, on the same level with the learned; and to direct attention to the pas.

The editions hitherto published in Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? country, it is believed, are either destitute of notes, or the no'es are altogether too few and too brief to afford the aid which is generally required.

The Editor has evinced his own high sense of their value, and has, moreover, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? them far more available to the illustration of the poem, than they are, as found in the Spectator, by selecting such criticisms as appeared to him to possess the highest merit, and distributing them in the form of notes, to the several parts of the poem which they serve to illustrate and adorn.

After this labor had been performed, however, and a principal part of the other notes had been prepared, it was ascertained with some surprise, on procuring a London copy of Bp.

Newton's edition of Milton, now quite scarce, that the same course had a century ago been pursued by him; though the same pains had not been taken by Newton to distribute in detail to every part of the poem the criticisms of Addison. Besides this, he introduced them entire, and thus occupied his pages with much matter quite inferior to that which has been provided, in this edition, from recent sources.

The notes of the present edition will be found to embrace, besides much other matter, all that is excellent and worth preservation in those of jNew. Yet it has been a pleasant, and more profitable task, to discover by personal research, and by aid of the research of others, those parts of classical authors a familiar acquaintance with which has enabled the learned poet so wonderfully to enrich and adorn his beautiful production.

These classic gems of thought and expression have been introduced in the notes, only for the gratification of those persons who are able to appreciate the language of the Roman and Grecian poets; and who may have a taste for observing the coincidences between their language and that of the great master of English verse.

To this must be Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? industrious and select reading, steady observation, insight into all seemly and generous arts and affairs. Shakspeare's originality might be still more impugned, if an anticipation of hints and similar stories were to be taken as proof of plagiarism. In many of the dramatist's most beautiful plays the whole tale is borrowed; but Shakspeare and Milton turn brass into gold. This sort of passage hunting has been carried a great deal too far, and has disgusted and repelled the reader of Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

and taste. The novelty is in the raciness, the life, the force, the jut association, the probability, the truth; that which is striking because it is extravagant is a false novelty.

He who borrows to make patches is a plagiarist; but what patch is there in Milton? All is interwoven and forms part of one web. No doubt the holy bard was always intent upon sacred poetry, and drew his principal inspirations from Scripture.

He has long wondered, and regretted, that such an edition of Paradise Lost, as the American public needs, has not been furnished; and in the absence of a better, he offers this edition, as adapted, in his humble opinion, to render a most desirable and profitable service to the reading community, while it may contribute, as he hopes, to bring this poem from the state of unmerited neglect into which it has fallen, and cause it to be more generally read and studied, for the cultivation of a literary taste and for the expansion of the intellectual and moral powers.

Ours is an age in which the best writings of the seventeenth century have been generally republished, and thus have been put upon a new career of fame and usefulness. Shakspeare has had, for more than half a Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, his learned annotators, without whose aid large portions of his plays would be nearly unintelligible. He has been honored with public lectures also, to illustrate his genius, and to bring to view his masterly sketches of the human heart and manners.

There have recently started up public readers also, by whose popular exertions he has been brought ihto more general admiration. It seems to be full time that a higher appreciation of the great epic of Milton than has hitherto prevailed among us, and that a more extended usefulness also, should be secured to it, by the publication of critical and explanatory notes, such as the circumstances of the reading class obviously require.

Nor should mentiof TeYomitted, of those excellent counsels, and maxims of conduct which it so frequently suggests, conveyed in language too appropriate and beautiful to be easily erased from the memory, or carelessly disregarded. In conclusion, we may confidently adopt the words of Brydges, who has said, that to study Milton's poetry is not merely the delight of every accomplished mind, but it is a duty. He who is not conversant with it, cannot conceive how far the genius of the Muse can go.

The bard, whatever might have been his inborn genius, could never have attained this height of argument and execution but by a life of laborious and holy preparation; a constant conversance with the ideas suggested by the sacred writings; the habitual resolve to lift his mind and heart above earthly thoughts; the incessant exercise of all the strongest faculties of the intellect; retirement, temperance, courage, hope, faith.

He had all the aids of learning; all the fruit of all the wisdom of ages; all the effect of all that poetic genius, and all that philosophy had achieved. His poetry is pure majesty; the sober strength, the wisdom from above, that instructs and awes. It speaks as an oracle; not with a mortal voice. And indeed, it will not be too much to say, that of all uninspired writings, Milton's are the most worthy of profound study by all minds which would know the creativeness, the splendor, the learning, the eloquence, the wisdom, to which the human intellect can attain.

The names of the authors most frequently quoted will be indicated simply by the initial letters: those authors are Addison, Newton, E. Brydges, Todd, Hume, Kitto, Richardson, Thyer, Stebbing and Pearce. The Introductory Remarks upon the several Books are, generally, those found in Sir Egerton Brydges' edition, with the omission of such remarks as were deemed either incorrect, or of little interest and importance.

Tins First Book proposes, first, in brief, the whole subject, Man's disobedience, and the loss thereupon of Paradise, wherein he was placed: then touches tht prime cause of his fall, the Serpent, or rather Satan in the serpent; who revolting from God, and drawing to his side many legions of Angels, was, by the command of God, driven out of Heaven, with all his crew, into the great deep.

Which action passed over, the poem hastens into the midst of things, presenting Satan with his Angels now fallen into Hell, described here, not in the centre for Heaven and Earth may be supposed as yet not made, certainly not yet accursed but in a place of utter darkness, fitliest called Chaos: here Satan with his Angels lying on the burning lake, thunderstruck and astonished, after a certain space recovers, as from confusion, calls up him who next in order and dignity lay by him; they confer of their miserable fall.

Satan awakens all his legions, who lay till then in the same manner confounded: they rise; their numbers, array of battle, their chief leaders named, according to the idols Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? afterward in Canaan and the countries adjoining. To these Satan directs his speech, comforts them with hope yet of regaining Heaven, but tells them lastly of a new world and new kind of creature to be created, according to an ancient prophecy or report in Heaven; for that Angels were long before this visible creation, was the opinion of many ancient Fathers.

To find out the truth of this prophecy, and what to determine thereon, he refers to a full council. What his associates thence attempt. Pandemonium, the palace of Satan, rises, suddenly built out of the deep: the infernal peers tihere sit in council. The matter, the illustrations and the allusions, are historically, naturally, and philosophically true. The learning is of every extent and diversity; recondite, classical, scientific, antiquarian. But the most surprising thing is, the manner in which he vivifies every topic he touches: he gives life and picturesqueness to the driest catalogue of buried names, personal or geographical.

They who bring no learning, yet feel themselves charmed by sounds and epithets which give a vague pleasure, and stir up the imagination into an indistinct emotion. Poetical imagination is the power, not only of conceiving, but of creating embodied illustrations of abstract truths, which are sublime, or pathetic, or beautiful; but those ideas, which Milton has embodied, no imagination but his own would have dared to attempt; none else would have risen 'to the height of this great argument.

Among the miraculous acquirements of Milton, was his deep and familial intimacy with all classical and all chivalrous literature; the amalgamation in his mind of all the philosophy and all the sublime and ornamental literature of the ancients, and all the abstruse, the laborious, the immature learning of those who again drew off the mantle of time from the ancient treasures of,cnius, and mingled with them their own crude conceptions and fantastic theories. He extracted from this mine all that would aid the imagination without shocking the reason.

He never rejected philosophy; but where it was fabulous, only offered it as ornament. In Milton's language though there Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? internal force and splendor, there is outward plainness. Common readers think that it sounds and looks like prose. This, being necessary, was therefore defensible, have secured the consistency of his system by keeping immate sight, and enticing his reader to drop it from his thoughts. The imagination, by its natural tendencies, always embodies spirit.

Poetry deals in pictures, though not exclusively in pictures. Upon the interesting topic here thus summarily though satisfactorily disposed of, Macaulay has furnished the following, among other admirable remarks: The most fatal error which a poet can possibly commit in the management of his machinery, is that of attempting to philosophise too much.

Milton has been often censured for ascribing to spirits many functions of which spirits must be incapable. But these objections, though sanctioned by eminent names, originate, we venture to say, in profound ignorance of the art of poetry.

What are our own minds, the portion of spirit with which we are best acquainted? We cannot explain them into material causes. We therefore infer that there exists something which is not material, but of this something we have no idea.

We can define it only by negatives. We can reason about it only by symbols. We use the word but we have no image of the thing; and the business of poetry is with images, and not with words. The poet uses words indeed, but they are merely the instruments of his art, not its objects They are the materials which he is to dispose in such a manner as to present a picture to the mental eye. And, if they are not so disposed, they are no more entitled to be called poetry than a bale of canvas Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

a box of colors are to be called a painting. Logicians Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? reason about abstractions, but the great mass of mankind can never feel an interest in them. The strong tendency of the multitude in all ages and nations to idolatry can be explained on no other principles. The first inhabitants of Greece, there is every reason to believe, worshipped one invisible Deity; but the necessity of having, omething more definite to Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

produced, in a few centuries, the innumeralIle crowd of gods and goddesses. In like manner the ancient Persians 1 lought it impious to exhibit the Creator under a human form. Yet even they transferred to the sun the worship which, speculatively, they considered due only to the supreme mind. The history of the Jews is the record of a continual struggle between pure Theism, supported by the most terrible sanctions, and the strangely fascinating desire of having some visible and tangible object of adoration.

Perhaps none of the secondary causes which Gibbon has assigned for the rapidity with which Christianity spread over the world, while Judaism scarcely ever acquired a proselyte, operated more powerfully than this feeling.

A Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? might admire so eption; but the crowd turned away in disgust from words which image to their minds. It was before Deity embodied in a huH alking among men, partaking of their infirmities, leaning on tlntmR ims, weeping over their graves, slumbering in the manger, bleeding on the cross, that the prejudices of the synagogue, and the doubts of the Academy, and the pride of the Portico, and the forces of the lictor, and the swords of thirty legions, were humbled in the dust.

Soon after Christianity had achieved its triumph, the principle which had assisted it began to corrupt it. It became a new Paganism. Patron saints assumed the offices of household gods. George took the place of Mars. Elmo consoled the mariner for the loss of Castor and Pollux.

The virgin Mary and Cecilia succeed to Venus and the Muses. The fascination of sex and loveliness was again joined to that of celestial dignity; and the homage of chivalry was blended with that of religion.

Reformers have often made a stand against these feelings; but never with more than apparent and partial success. The men who demolished the images in cathedrals have not always been able to demolish those which were enshrined in their minds.

It would not be difficult to show that in politics the same rule holds good. Doctrines, we are afraid, must generally be embodied before they can excite strong public feeling. The multitude is more easily'interested for the most unmeaning badge, or the most insignificant name, than for the most important principle.

From these considerations, we infer that no poet who should affect that metaphysical accuracy for the want of which Milton has been blamed, would escape a disgraceful failure, still, however, there was another extreme, which, though one less dangerous, was also to be avoided. The imaginations of men are in a great measure under the control of their opinions. The most exquisite art of a poetical coloring can produce no illusion when it is employed to represent that which is at once perceived to be incongruous and absurd.

Milton wrote in an age of philosophers and theologians. It was necessary therefore for him to abstain from giving such a shock to their understandings, as might break the charm which it was his object to throw Sover their imaginations. This is the real Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? of the indistinctness and inconsistency with which he has often been reproached.

Johnson acknowledges that it was absolutely necessary for him to clothe his spirits with material forms. What if the contrary opinion had taken so full a possession of the minds of men, as to leave no room even for the quasi-belief which poetry requires?

Such we suspect to have been the case. It was impossible for the poet Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? adopt altogether the material or the immaterial system.

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He therefore took his stand on the debateable ground. He left the whole in ambiguity. F losophically in the wrong, we cannot but believe that he was the right.

This task, which almost any other writer would havw e practicable, was easy to him. The peculiar art which he possessed municating his meaning circuitously, through a long succession of associated ideas, and of intimating more than he expressed, enabled him to disguise those incongruities which he could not avoid.

The spirits of Milton are unlike those of almost all other writers. His fiends, in particular, are wonderful creations. They are not metaphysical abstractions.

They are not xwicked men. They are not ugly beasts. They have no horns, no tails. They have just enough in common with human nature to be intelligible to human beings. As in the commencement of the Iliad, of the Odyssey, and of the jEneid, so here the subject of the poem is the first announcement that is made, and precedes the verb with which it stands connected, thus giving it due Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?. Besides the plainness and simplicity of the exordium, there is as Newton has observed a further beauty in the variety of the numbers, which of themselves charm every reader without any sublimity of thought or pomp of expression; and this variety of the numbers consists chiefly in the pause being so artfully varied that it falls upon a different syllable in almost every line.

Thus, in the successive lines it occurs after the words disobedience, tree, world, Eden, us, Muse. In Milton's verse the pause is continually varied according to the sense through all the ten syllables of which it is composed; and to this peculiarity is to be ascribed the surpassing harmony of his numbers. Eden: Here the whole is put for a part. It was the loss of Paradise only, the garden, the most beautiful part of Eden; for after the expulsion of our first parents from Paradise we read of their pursuing their solitary way in Eden, which was an extensive region.

Secret top: set apart, interdicted. The Israelites, during the delivery of the law, were not allowed to ascend that mountain. Horeb and Sinai were the names of two contiguous eminences of the same chain of mountains. Oracle: God's temple; so called from the divine communications which were there granted to men.

Things unattempted: There were but few circumstances upon which Milton could raise his poem, and in everything which he added out of his own invention he was obliged, from the nature of the subject, to proceed with the greatest caution; yet he has filled his story with a surprising number of incidents, which bear so close an analogy with what is delivered in holy writ that it is capable of pleasing the most delicate reader without giving offence to the most scrupulous. Chiefly Thou, 0 Spirit: Invoking the Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

is commonly a matter of mere form, wherein the modern poets neither mean, nor desire to be thought to mean, anything seriously. I is thought by Bp. Newton that the poet is liable Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? the charge of enthusism; having expected from the Divine Spirit a kind and degree of inspiratio similar to that which the writers of the sacred scriptures enjoyed.

Say irst, for Heav'n hides nothing from thy view, Nor 4he deep tract of Hell; say Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? what cause Moved our grand parents, in that happy state, Favor'd of Heav'n so highly, to fall off 30 widow of Milton was accustomed to affirm that he considered himself as inspired; and this report is confirmed by a passage in his Second Book on Church Government, already quoted in our preliminary observations. The height of the argument is precisely what distinguishes this poem of Milton fot 1r--a'l others.

In other works of imagination the difficulty lie in giving sufficient elevation to the subject; here it lies in raising the imagination up to the grandeur of the subject, in adequate conception of its mightiness, and in finding language of such majes'y as will not degrade it.

A genius less gigantic and less holy than Milton's would have shrunk from the attempt. The poets attribute a kind of omniscience to the Muse, as it enables them to speak of things which could not otherwise be supposed to come to their knowledge. Milton's Muse, being the Holy Spirit, must of course be omniscient.

Greatness, is an important requisite in the action or subject of an epic poem; and Milton here surpasses both Homer and Virgil. Milton's subject do' determine the fate merely of single persons, or of a nation, but o- A. The united powers of Hell are joined together for the d Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? of mankind, which they effected in part and would have completed, eI not Omnipotence itself interposed.

The principal actors are man in his gr:atest perfection, and woman in her highest beauty. Their enemies are the fllen angels; the Meslih their friend, and the Almighty their Protector. From their Creator, and trangress his will For one restraint, lords of the world besides? Who first seduced them to that foul revolt? Th' infernal Sepent: he it was whose guile, Stirr'd up with envy and revenge, deceived 35 The mother of mankind, what time his pridel Had cast him out from Heav'n, with all his host Of rebel Angels; by whose aid asirng To set himself in~glory 'bove his Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, He trusted to have equall'd the Most High, 40 If he opposed; and with ambitious aim Against the throne and monarchy of God, Raised impious war in Heav'n, and battle proud With vain attempt.

Him the Almighty Power Hurl'd headlong flaming from th' ethereal sky, 45 With hideous ruin and combustion down To bottomless perdition; there to dell In adamantine chains and penal fire, short, everything that is great in the whole circle of being, whether within the range of nature or beyond it, finds a place in this admirable poem.

But he who addresses himself to the perusal of this work with a mind entirely unaccustome ious and spiritual contemplation, unacquainted with the word of G prejudiced against it, is ill qualified to appreciate the value of a poem bu t upon it, or to taste its beauties.

One restraint: one subject of restraint-the tree of knowledge of good and evil. In glory: a divine glory, such as God himself possessed.

This charge is brought against him, V. Ruin is derived from ruo, and includes the idea of falling with violence and precipitation: combustion is more than flaming in the foregoing line; it Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

burning in a dreadful manner. Compare with Epistle of Jude v. Nine times the space, c. Propriety sometimes requires the use of circumlocution, as in this case. To have said nine days and nights would not have been proper when talking of a period before the crealion of the sun, and consequently before time was portioned out-uy being in that manner.

The nine days' astonishment, in whic tie angels lay entranced after their dreadful overthrow and fall from heaven, before they could recover the Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? either of thought or speech, is a Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? circumstance and very finely imagined. The division of hell into seas of fire, and into firm ground 227-8 impregnated with the same furious element, with that particular circumstance of the exclusion of hope from those infernal regions, are instances of the same great and fruitful invention.

Absolute darkness is, strictly speaking, invisible; but where there is a gloom only, there is so much light remaining as serves to show that there are objects, and yet those objects cannot be discanctly seen.

Compare with the Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, 79, 80: ' Where glowing embers through the room Teach light to counterfeit a gloom. To whom th' Arch-Enemy, And thence in Heav'n call'd Satan, with bold words 72.

Utter, has the same meaning as the word outer, which is applied to darkness in the Scriptures. Spenser uses utter in this sense. It is observable that Homer makes the seat of hell as far beneath the deepest pit of earth as the heaven is above the earth, Iliad viii.

The language of the inspired writings says Dugald Stewart is on this as on other occasions, beautifully accommodated to the irresistible impressions of nature; availing itself of such popular and familiar words as upwards and downwards, above and below, in condescension to the frailty of the human mind, governed so much by sense and imagination, and so little by the abstractions of philosophy.

Hence the expression of fallen angels, which, by recalling to us the eminence from which they fell, communicates, in a single word, a character of sublimity to the bottomless abyss. The word means god offlies. Here he is made second to Satan.

Many other names are assigned, to this arch enemy of God and man, in the sacred scriptures. He is called the Devil, the Dragon, the Evil One, the Angel of the Bottomless Pit, the Prince of this World, the Prince of the power of the air, the God of this World, Apollyon.

Milton, it will be seen, applies some of these terms to other evil angels. Breaking the horrid silence thus began: li If thou beest he; but 0 how fallen! If he Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

mutual league, United thoughts and counsels, equal hope And hazard in the glorious enterprise, Join'd with me once, now misery hath join'd 90 In equal ruin: into what pit thou seest From what height fall'n, so much the stronger proved He with his thunder: and till then who knew The force of those dire arms?

Upon the character of Satan as. The confusion of mind felt by Satan is happily shown by the abrupt and halting manner in which he commences this speech. There is an uncommon beauty in this expression.

Satan disdains to utter the name of God, though he cannot but acknowledge his superiority. Whatever perverse interpretation he puts on the justice, mercy, and other attributes of the Supreme Being, he frequently confesses his omnipotence, that being the perfection he was forced to allow, and the only consideration which could support his pride under the shame of his defeat.

Upon this important point Dr. But our interest fastens, in this and like cases, on what is not evil. That Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? an ignominy and shame beneath This downfall: since by fate the strength of Gods And this empyreal substance cannot fail, 1001 ost? What chains us, as with a resistless spell, in such a character, is spiritual might might of soulmade visible by the racking pains which it overpowers.

There is something kindling and ennobling in the consciousness, however awakened, of the energy which resides in mind; and many a virtuous man has Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? new strength from the force, constancy, and dauntless courage of evil agents. Overcome: in some editions an interrogation point is placed after this word, but improperly; for, as Pearce remarks, the line means, 'and if there be anything else besides the particulars mentioned which is not to be overcome.

That glory: referring to the possession of an unconquerable will, and the other particulars mentioned 107-9. Doubted his empire: that is, doubted the stability of it. Satan supposes the angels to subsist by necessity, and repre. Sthem of an empyreal, that is, fiery substance, as the Scripture does, Ps. Satan disdains to submit, since the angels as he says are - immortal and cannot be destroyed, and since too they are now experience. Since through experience of this great event In arms not worse, in foresight much advanced, We may with more successful hope resolve 120 To wage by force or guile eternal war, Irreconcileable to our grand foe, Who now triumphs, and in th' excess of joy, -ole reigning holds the tyranny of heav'n.

So spake th' apostate Angel, though in pain, 125 Vaunting aloud, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? rack'd with deepgdespair: And him thus answer'd soon his bold compeer. An order of ar the throne of God. Strength undiminish'd, or eternal being To undergo eternal punishment? If then his providence Out of our evil seek to bring forth good, Our labor must be to pervert that end, And out of good still to find means of evil; 165 Which oft-times may succeed, so as perhaps Shall grieve him, if I fail not, and distitrb His inmost counsels fiom their destined aim.

But see, the angry victor hath recall'd His ministers of vengeance and pursuit 170 Back to the gates of Heav'n; the sulph'rous hail Shot after us in storm, o'erblown hath laid The fiery surge, that from the precipice Of Heav'n received us falling; and the thunder, Wing'd with red lightning and impetuous rage, 175 Perhaps hath spent his shafts, and ceases now To bellow through the vast and boundless deep, Let us not slip th' occasion, whether scorn 157.

One of an order of angels next in rank to a seraph. The account here given by Satan differs materially from that whib, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? gives, book vi. RaphaePs account may be considered as the true one; but, as Newton remarks. And what a slublime idea does it give us of the terrors of the Messiah, that he alone should be a- formidable, as if the whole host of Heaven were in pursuit of them.

Or satiate fury yield it from our foe. Seest thou yon dreary plain, forlorn and wild, 180 The seat of desolation, void of light, Save what the glimm'ring of these livid flames Casts pale and dreadful? Thither let us tend From off the tossing of these fiery waves, There rest, if any rest can harbor there, 185 And reassembling our afflicted powers, Consult how we may henceforth most offend Our enemy, our own loss how repair, How overcome this dire calamity, What reinforcement we may gain from hope, 190 If not, what resolution from despair.

The incidents, in the passage that follows, to which Addison calls attention, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, Satan's being the first that wakens out of the general trance, his posture on the burning lake, his rising from it. Prone on the flood, somewhat like those two monstrous serpents described by Virgil ii. And also that of the old dragon in Spenser's Fairy Queen, book i. Titanian, or Earth-born: Genus antiquum terra, Titania pubes 2En.

I Briareos, or Typhon, whom the den By ancient Tarsus held, or that sea-beast 2'0 Leviathan, which God of all his works Created hugest that swim the ocean stream; Him haply slumb'ring on the Norway foaml The pilot of some small night-founder'd skiff Deeming some island, oft, as seamen tell, 203 With fixed anchor in his scaly rind Moors by his side under the lea, while night Invests the sea and wish d morn delays: Here Milton comme ces that tin of learntd allusions which was among his peculiarities, and which he always makes poetical by some picturesque epithet, or simile.

Briareos, a fabled giant one of the Titans possessed of a hundred hands. Leviathan, a marine animal finely described in the book of Job, ch. It is supposed by some to be the whale; by others, the crocodile, with less probability.

Swim the ocean-stream: What a force of imagination is there in this last expression! What an idea it conveys of the size of that largest of created beings, as if it shrunk up the ocean to a stream, and took up the sea in its nostrils as a very little thing!

Force of style is one of Milton's great excellencies. Hence, perhaps, he stimulates us more in the reading, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? less afterwards.

The way to defend Milton against all impugners is to take down the book and read it. This line is by some found fault with as inharmonious; but good taste approves its structure, as being on this account better suited to convey a just idea of the size of this monster. Night-foundered: overtaken by the night, and thus arrested in its course. The metaphor, as Hume observes, is taken from a foundered horse that can go no further.

Under the lee: in a place defended from the wind. And yield his room to sad succeeding night, Who with her sable mantle 'gan to shade The face of Earth. Then with expanded wings he steers his flight 225 Aloft, incumbent on the dusky air, 209. There are many examples in Milton of musical expression, or of an adaptation of the sound and movement of the verse to the meaning of the passage. This line is an instance. By Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? great length, and pectliar structure, being composed of monosyllables, it is admirably adapted to convey the idea of immense size.

Chained on the burning lake: There seems to be an allusion here to the legend of Prometheus, one of the Titans, who was exposed to the wrath of Jupiter on account of his having taught mortals the arts.

According to another story he was actually the creator of men, or at least inspired them with thought and sense. His punishment was to be chained to a rock on Caucasus, where a vulture perpetually gnawed his liver from which he was finally rescued by Hercnles.

This legend has formed the subject of the grandest of all the poetical illustrations of Greek supernatural belief, the Prometheus Bound of,'schylus. Many have recognized in the indomitable resolution of this sa fuiring Titan, and his stern endurance of the evils inflicted on him Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? a power with which he had vainly warred for supremacy, the prototype of the arch-fiend of Milton.

That felt unusual weight: This conceit as Thyer remarks is borrowed fromn Spenser, who thus describes the old dragon, book i. Etna, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

combustible And fuel'd entrails thence conceiving fire, And with strong flight did forcibly divide The yielding air, which nigh too feeble found Her flitting parts, and element unsound, To bear so great a weight. There are several noble similies and allusions in the first book of Paradise Lost. And here it must be observed that when Milton alludes either to things or persons he never quits his simile until it rises to some very great idea, which is often foreign to the occasion that gave birth to it.

The simile does not perhaps occupy above a line or two, but the poet runs on with the hint until he has raised out of it some brilliant image or sentiment adapted to inflame the mind of the reader and to give it that sublime kind of entertainment which is suitable to the nature of an heroic poem. In short, if we look into the poems of Homer, Virgil, and Milton, we must observe, that as the great fable is the soul of each poem, so, to give their works the greater variety, the episodes employed by these authors may be regarded as so many short fables, their similies as so many short episodes, and their metaphors as so many short similies.

If the comparisons in the first book of Milton, of the sun in an eclipse, of the sleeping leviathan, of: bees swarming about their hive, of the fairy dance, be regarded in this light the great beauties existing in each of these passages will readily be discovered.

Wind: this should be altered to winds, to agree with the reading in line 235; or that should be altered to agree with this. Pelorus: the eastern promontory of Sicily. Thence conceiving fire: the combustible and fuelled entrails, or interior contents, of the mountain, are here represented Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

takingfire, as the result of the action of the subterranean wind, in removing the side of the mountain. The fire thus kindled was sublimed with mineral fury, that is, was heightened by the rapid combustion of mineral substances of a bituminous nature.

Him follow'd his next mate, Both glorying to have 'scap'd the Stygian flood As Gods, and by their own recover'd strength, 240 Not by the sufPrance of Supernal Power.

Be it so, since he 245 Who now is Sovran can dispose and bid What shall be right: farthest from him is best, Whom reason hath equall'd, force hath made supreme Above his equals.

Farewell happy fields, Where joy forever dwells: Hail horrors, hail 250 Infernal world, and thou profoundest Hell Receive thy new possessor; one who brings A mind not to be changed by place or time. The mind is its own place, and in itself Can make a Heav'n of Hell, a Hell of Heav'n.

Stygian flood; an expression here of the same import with infernal flood, alluding to the fabulous river Styx of the lower world, which the poets represented as a broad, dull and sluggish stream. Sovran: from the Italian word sovrano. The intensity of its fires reveals the intense passion and more vehement will of Satan; and the ruined archangel gathers into himself the sublimity of the scene which surrounds him.

This forms the tremendous interest of these wonderful books. We see mind triumphant over the most terrible powers of natuire We see unutterable agony subdued by energy of soul. Here at least We shall be free; th' Almighty hath not built Here for his envy, will not drive us hence: 264 Here we may reign secure, and in my choice,To reign is worth ambition, though in hell; Tetter to reign in hell than serve inheaven But wherefore let we then our faithful friends, Th' associates and copartners of our loss, 265 Lie thus astonish'd on th' oblivious pool, And call them not to share with us their part In this unhappy mansion, or once more With rallied arms to try what may be yet Regain'd in Heav'n, or what more lost in Hell?

Shakspeare, in Hamlet, says: There is nothing either good or bad, but Thinking makes it so. This sentiment is the great foundation on which the Stoics build, their whole system of ethics. The lust of power and the hatred of moral excellence are Satan's prominent characteristics. Edge of battle: from the Latin word acies, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? signifies both the edge of a weapon and also an army in battle array.

As we ere while, astounded and amazed, No wonder, fall'n such a pernicious height. Homer and Ossian describe in a like splendid manner the shields of their heroes. Galileo: He was the first who applied the telescope to celestial observations, and was the discoverer of the satellites of Jupiter in 1610, which, in honor of his patron, Cosmo Medici he called the Mediccan stars. Frc:n the tower of St. Mark he showed the Venetian senators not only the satellites of Jupiter but the crescent of Venus, the triple appearance of Saturn, and the inequalities on the Moon's surface.

At this conference he also endeavored to convince them of the truth of the Copernican system. Fesol: a city of Tuscany. The very sound of these names is charming. Ammiral: the obsolete form of admiral, the principal ship in a fleet. The idea contained in this passage, may, as Dr. Johnson suggests, be drawn from the following.

This is a favorite passage with all readers of descriptive poetry. But Milton's comparison is the more exact by far; it not only expresses a multitude but also the posture and situation of the angels.

Their lying confusedly in heaps covering the lake is finely represented by this image of the leaves in the brooks. Vallombrosa: a Tuscan valley: the name is composed of vallis and umbra, and thus denotes a shady valley. Orion arm'd: Orion is a constellation represented in the figure of an armed man, and supposed to be attended with stormy weather, assurgens fluctu nimbosus Orion, Virg. The Red Sea abounds so much with sedge that in the Hebrew Scriptures it is Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

the Sedgy Sea. The wind usually drives the sedge in great quantities against the shore. Busiris: Bentley objects to Milton giving this name to Pharaoh since history does not support him in it. But Milton uses the liberty of a poet in giving Pharaoh this name, because some had already attached it to him. Chivalry, denotes here those who use horses in fight, whether by riding on them, or riding in chariots drawn by them, See line 765. Perfidious: he permitted them to leave the country, but afterwards pursued them.

Or in this abject posture have ye sworn T' adore the conqueror? Awake, arise, or be for ever fall'n. Nor did they not perceive the evil plight 335 In which they were, or the fierce pains not feel; Yet to their gen'ral's voice they soon obey'd Innumerable.

As when the potent rod Of Amram's son, in Egypt's evil day, Waved round the coast, up call'd a pitchy cloud 340 Of locusts, warping on the eastern wind, That o'er the realm of impious Pharaoh hung Like night, and darken'd all the land of Nile: So numberless were those bad Angels seen 315.

This magnificent call of Satan to his prostrate host could have been written by nobody but Milton. An allusion seems here Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? be made to the 2Eneid, book i. Illum, exspirantem transfixo pectore flammas, Tuibine corripuit. Warping: Moving like waves; or, working themselves forward.

Nor had they yet among the sons of Eve Got them new names, till wand'ring o'er the earth, 365 345. Frozen loins: In Scripture children are said to come out of the loins, Gen. The term frozen is here used only on account of the coldness of the Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?. Rhene and Danaw, the one from the Latin, the other from the German, are chosen because uncommon. Barbarous: The Goths, Huns, and Vandals, wherever their conquests extended, destroyed the monuments of ancient learning and Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?.

Beneath Gibraltar: That is, southward of it, the northern portion of the globe being regarded as uppermost. The three comparisons relate to the three different states in which these fallen angels are represented. When abject and lying supine on the lake, they are fitly compared to vast heaps of leaves which in autumn the poet himself had observed to bestrew the water-courses and bottoms of Vallombrosa.

When roused by their great leader's objurgatory summons, they are compared, in number, with the countless locusts of Egypt. The object of the third comparison is to illustrate their number when assembled as soldiers on the firm brimstone, and here they are compared with the most numerous body of troops which history had made mention of.

Thro' God's high suff'rance for the trial of man, By falsities and lies the greatest part Of mankind they corrupted, to forsake God their Creator, and th' invisible Glory of him that made them to transform 370 Oft to the image of a brute, adorn'd With gay religions full of pomp and gold, And Devils to adore for Deities: Then were they known to men by various names, And various idols through the Heathen world, 375 Say, Muse, their names then known, who first, who last Roused from the slumber, on that fiery couch, At their great emp'ror's call, as next in worth Came singly where he stood on the bare strand, While the promiscuous crowd stood yet aloof.

As a Christian he was entitled wholly to neglect them, but as a poet he chose to treat them not as the dreams of the human mind, but as the delusions of infernal existences. This subject is again presented in the last note on Book I.

Religions: That is, religious rites. Idols: Heathen idols are here described as the representatives of there demons. Addison remarks that the catalogue of evil spirits has abundance of learning in it and a very agreeable turn of poetry, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? rises in a great measure from its describing the places where they were worshipped, by those beautiful marks of rivers so frequent among the ancient poets. The author had doubtless in this place Homer's catalogue of ships, and Virgil's list of warriors in his view.

When they apostatised, they acquired Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? and dishonorable nan,:,n. First Moloch, horrid king, besmear'd with blood Of human sacrifice, and parents' tears, Though for the noise of drums and timbrels loud Their children's cries unheard, that pass'd thro' fire 395 To his grim idol.

Him the Ammonite Worshipp'd in Rabba and ner wat'ry plain, In Argob and in Basan, to the stream Of utmost Arnon. Nor content with such Audacious neighborhood, the wisest heart 430 Of Solomon he led by fraud to build His temple right against the temple Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? God, On that opprobrious hill; and made his grove The pleasant vale of Hinnom, Tophet thence 387.

Cherubim: The golden figures placed over the ark in the Hebrew sanctuary, Exod. See also 2 Kings xix. Moloch: The national God of the Ammonites; properly denominated horrid, since to him children were offered in sacrifice.

The characters ascribed to Moloch and Belial prepare us for their respective speeches and behaviour in the second and sixth books. Rabba, or Rabbah, was the principal city of the Ammonites, twenty miles northeast of Jericho, and on the east side of the Jordan. Argob is not far distant. Bashan is a large district of country lying east of the Sea of Tiberias, celebrated for its cattle, and its oaks.

At the time of the conquest of Canaan by the Hebrews, the Ammonites occupied the country east of Jordan, from the river Arnon, which empties into the Dead Sea to the river Jabbok. The vale of Hinnom was near Jerusalem. Solomon built a temple to Moloch on the Mount of Olives 1 Kings xi.

Tophet: In the Hebrew, drum; this and other noisy instruments being used to drown the cries of the miserable children who were offered to this idol; and Gehenna, or the valley of Hinnom, is in several places of the New Testament, and by our Saviour himself, made the name and type of hell.

And black Gehenna call'd, the type of Hell. Peor his other name, when he enticed Israel in Sittim, on their march from Nile, To do him wanton rites, which cost them woe. Yet thence his lustful orgies he enlarged 415 E'en to that hill of scandal, by the grove Of Moloch homicide; lust hard by hate; Till good Josiah drove them thence to Hell. Chemos: The god of the Moabites. It is supposed to be same as Baal-Peor, and as Priapus. Hesebon Heshbon : Twenty-one miles east of the mouth of the Jordan.

Its situation is still marked by a few broken pillars, several large cisterns and wells, together with extensive ruins which overspread a high hill, commanding a wild and desolate scenery on every side. Abarim is a chain of mountains running north and south, east of the Dead Sea; Pisgah is some eminence in this chain at the northern part, and Nebo is supposed to be the summit of Pisgah, nearly opposite Jericho.

It was here that the great leader of the Israelites was favored with a view of the land of promise, and yielded up his life at the command of the Lord, B.

Aroar Aroer was a place situated on the river Arnon, which formed the northern boundary of the kingdom of Moab. Seon Sihon was king of the Amorites. Sittim is written Shittim in the Bible. The term is generally applied to the feasts of Bacchus, but is equally applicable to the obscene practices connected with the worship of Chemos, or Peor. Lust hard by hate: The figure contained in this verse conveys a strong moral truth.

Had it not been, however, that the music of the verse would have been injured, the idea would have been more correct by the transposition of the words lust and hate:-S. For those the race of Israel oft forsook 419.

Bordering flood: The Euphrates formed the eastern border of the promised land, Gen. It may be called old from the very early historic mention of it in Gen. Brook: Probably the brook Besor. The sun and the stars are supposed to be intended under these names. Milton probably derived these notions from a passage in a Greek author of antiquity, who, in a dialogue concerning Demons, tells a story of one appearing in the form of a woman, and upon this it is asserted that they can assume either sex, take what shape and color they please, and contract and dilate themselves at pleasure.

Spirits: The nature of spirits is here set forth, and the explanation of the manner in which spirits transform themselves by contraction or enlargement is introduced with great judgment, to make why for several surprising accidents in the sequel of the poem. There follows a passage ncai the very end of the first book, which is what the French critics call marvellous, but at the same time is rendered probable when compared with this passage.

As soon as the infernal palace is finished, we are told, the multitude and rabble of spirits shrunk themselves into a'small compass, that there might be room for such a numberless assembly in this capacious hall. But it is the poet's refinement upon this thought which is most to be admired, and which indeed is very noble in itself. For he tells us, that notwithstanding the vulgar among the fallen spirits contracted their forms, those of the first rank and dignity still preserved their natural dimensions.

Consult the last ten lines of the first book. Their living Strength, and unfrequented left His Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? altar, bowing lowly down To bestial gods; for which their heads as low 435 Bow'd down in battle, sunk before the spear Of despicable foes. With these in troop Came Astoreth, whom Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? Phoenicians call'd Astarte, queen of heaven, with crescent horns To whose bright image nightly by the moon 440 Sidonian virgins paid their vows and songs; In Sion also not unsung, where stood Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

temple on th' offensive mountain, built By that uxorious king, whose heart, though large, Beguiled by fair idolatresses, fell 445 To idols foul. Thammuz came next behind, Whose annual wound in Lebanon allured The Syrian damsels to lament his fate In amorous ditties all a summer's day; While smooth Adonis from his native rock 450 Ran purple to the sea, supposed with blood f Thamiuz yearly wounded: the love-tale Infected Sion's daughters with like heat; Whose wanton passions in the sacred porch Ezekiel saw, when by the vision led, 455 His eye survey'd the dark idolatries 438.

Offensive: So called on account of the idolatrous worship there performed; in other places called by Milton, for the same reason, the mountain of corruption, opprobrious hill, and hill of scandal.

Uxorious king: Solomon, who was too much influenced by his wives. Thammuz: This idol is the same as the Phenician Adonis. Adonis, in the heathen mythology, was a beautiful youth, son of Cinyrus, king of Cyprus, beloved by Venus, and killed by a wild boar, to the great regret of the goddess. It is also the name of a river of Phenicia, on the banks of which Adonis, or Thammuz as he is called in the East, was supposed to have been killed.

At certain seasons of the year this river acquires a high red color by the rains washing up red earth. The ancient poets ascribed this to a sympathy in the river for the death of Adonis. This season was observed as a festival in the adjacent country.

To these circumstances Milton has here beautifully alluded. Next came one Who mourn'd in earnest, when the captive ark Maim'd his brute image, head and hands lopp'd off In his own temple, on the grunsel edge, 460 Where he fell flat, and shamed his worshippers: Dagon his name, sea-monster, upward man And downward fish: yet had his temple high Rear'd in Azotus, dreaded through the coast Of Palestine, in Gath and Ascalon, 465 And Accaron and Gaza's frontier bounds.

Him follow'd Rimmon, whose delightful seat Was fair Damascus, on the fertile banks Of Abbana and Pharphar, lucid streams. He also 'gainst the house of God was bold: 470 A leper once he lost, and gain'd a king; Ahaz his sottish conqu'ror, whom he drew God's altar to disparage and displace For one of Syrian mode, whereon to burn His odious offerings, and adore the gods 475 Whom he had vanquish'd.

After these appear'd A crew, who, under names of old renown, 460. Grunsel edge: Groundsill edge-the threshold of the gate of the temple. Dagon: A god of the Philistines. Rimmon: A god of the Syrians. The power of Milton's mind is stamped on every line. The fervpur of his imagination melts down and renders malleable, as in a furnace, the most Who celebrates the Rhine Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

Flames? materials. Milton's learning has all the effect of intuition. He describes objects, of which he could only have read in books, with the vividness of actual observation.

His imagination has the force of nature. He makes words tell as pictures, as in these lines. The word lucid, here used, gives us all the sparkling effect of the most perfect landscape There is great depth of impression in his descriptions of the objects of all the different senses, whether colours, or sounds, or smells; the same absorption of mind in whatever engaged his attention at the time.

He forms the most intense conceptions of things, and then embodies them by a sinle stroke of his pen. Osiris, Iris, Orus, and their train, With monstrous shapes and sorceries abused Fanatic Egypt and her priests, to seek 480 Their wandering gods disguised in brutish forms Rather than human. Nor did Israel 'scape Th' infection, when their borrow'd gold composed The calf in Oreb; and the rebel king Doubled that sin in Bethel and in Dan, 485 Likening his Maker to the grazed ox; Jehovah, who in one night when he pass'd From Egypt marching, equall'd with one stroke Both her first-born, and all her bleating gods.

Belial came last, than whom a spirit more lewd 490 Fell not from heaven, or more gross to love Vice for itself: to whom no temple stood, Nor altar smoked; yet who more oft than he In temples and at altars, when the priest Turns atheist, as did Eli's sons, who filPd 495 478. Osiris, one of Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? principal Egyptian gods, was brother to Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, and the father of Orus Horus.

Osiris was worshipped under the form of the sacred bulls, Apis and Mnevis; and as it is usual in the Egyptian symbolical language to represent their deities with human forms, and with the heads of the animals which were their representatives, we find statues of Osiris with the horns of a bull. Infection: The Israelites, by dwelling so long in Egypt, were infected with the superstitions of the Egyptians.

Doubled that sin, by making two golden calves, probably in imitation of the Egyptians among whom he had been, who worshipped two oxen; one called Apis, at Memphis, the metropolis of Upper Egypt; the other called Mnevis, at Hieropolis, the chief city of Lower Egypt. Bethel and Dan were at the southern and northern extremities of Palestine. Eli's sons: Consult 1 Sam. Witness the streets of Sodom, and that night In Gibeah, when the hospitable door Exposed a matron, to avoid worse rape.

Flown: A better reading is blown, inflated. Prime: Being mentioned in the oldest records, the Hebrew. Javan: The fourth son of Japhet, from whom the lonians and the Greeks are supposed to have descended. Heaven and Earth: The gcd Uranus, and the goddess Gaia, 510-521. Titan was their eldest son: he was the father of the Giants and his empire was seized by his younger brother Saturn, as Saturn's was by Jupiter, the son of Saturn and Rhea.

These first were known in the island of Crete, now Candia, in which is Mount Ida. On the contrary, he has represented the whole Godhead exerting itself towards man, in its full benevolence, under the threefold distinction of a Creator, Redeemer, and Comforter. The angels are as much diversified in Milton, and distinguished by their proper parts, as the gods are in Homer or Virgil.

The reader will find nothing ascribed to Uriel, Gabriel, Michael, or Raphael, which is not in a particular manner suitable to their respective characters. But Milton's poem has an advantage, in this respect, above both the others, since it is impossible for any of its readers, whatever nation or country he may belong to, not to be related to the persons who are the principal actors in it; but, what is still infinitely more to its advantage, the principal actors in this poem, are not only our progenitors, but our representatives.

Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

We have an actual interest in everything they do, and no less than our utmost happiness is concerned, and lies at stake in all their behaviour. The charge is brought against Milton of blending the Pagan and Christian forms.

The great realities of angels and archangels, are continually combined into the same groups with the fabulous impersonations of the Greek Mythology. In other poets, this combination might be objected to, but not in Milton. They are not false, therefore, in the sense of being unreal, baseless, and having a merely fantastical existence, like the European fairies, but as having drawn aside mankind from a pure worship. As ruined angels, under other names, they are no less real than the faithful and loyal angels of the Christian Heaven.

And in that one difference of the Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? creed, which the poet has brought pointedly and elaborately under his readers' notice by his matchless catalogue of the rebellious angels, and of their pagan transformations, in the very first book of the Paradise Lost, is laid beforehand the amplest foundation for his subsequent practice; and, at the same time, therefore, the amplest answer to the charge preferred against him by Dr.

Johnson, and by so many other critics, who had not sufficiently penetrated the latent theory on which he acted. His aim was no less than the throne of the universe; his means, myriads of angelic armies bright, who durst defy the Omnipotent in arms. His strength of mind was matchless, as his strength of body: the vastness of his designs did not surpass the firm, inflexible determination with which he submitted to his irreversible doom, and final loss of all good.

His power of action and of suffering was equal. He was the greatest power that was ever overthrown, with the strongest will left to resist or to endure. He was baffled, not confounded. The fierceness of tormenting flames is qualified and made innoxious by the greater fierceness of his pride: the loss of infinite happiness to himself, is compensated in thought by the power of inflicting infinite misery on others.

Yet, Satan is not the principle of malignity, or of the abstract love of evil, but of the abstract love of power, of pride, of self-will personified, to which last principle all other good and evil, and even his own, are subordinate. The Achilles of HomeTris not more distinct; the Titans were not more vast; Prometheus, chained to his rock, was not a more terrific example of suffering and of crime. The deformity of Satan is only in the depravity of his will; he has no bodily deformity, to excite our loathing or disgust.

Hazlitt, in the above sketch of Milton's Satan, had no authority for saying that he was not a personification of malice, but, simply, of pride and selfwill: this will appear on referring to Book I. The council thus ended, the rest betake them several ways, and to several employments, as their inclinations lead them, to entertain the tiLme till Satan return. He passes on his journey to Hell-gates, finds them shut, and who sat there to guard them, by whom at lengt, he, r oee, and discover to him the great gulf betwveen Hell and Heaven; with what difficulty be passes through, directed by Chaos, the power of that place, to the sight of this new world which he sought.

The inexhaustible invention continues to grow upon us; each page, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? line, is pregnant with something new, picturesque, and great; the condensity of the matter is without any parallel; the imagination often contained in a single passage, is more than equal to all that secondary poets have produced.

The fable of the voyage through Chaos is alone a sublime poem. Milton's descriptions of materiality have always touches of the spiritual, the lofty and the empyreal.

Milton has too much condensation to be fluent: a Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? or two often contains a world of images and ideas. He expatiates over all time, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? space, all possibilities; he unites Earth with Heaven, with Hell, with all intermediate existences, animate and inanimate; and his illustrations are drawn from all learning, historical, natural, and speculative. What is the subject of observation, may be told without genius; but the wonder and the greatness lie in invention, if the invention be noble, and according to the principles of possibility.

Who could have conceived, or, if conceived, who could have described the voyage of Satan through Chaos, but Milton? Who could have invented so many distinct and grand obstacles in his way, and all picturesqu? All the faculties of the mind are exercised, stretched and elevated at once by every page of Paradise Lost.

That Milton could bring so much learning, as well as so much imaginative invention, to bear on every part of his infinitely-extended, yet thick-compacted story, is truly miraculous. Were the learning superficial and loosely applied, the wonder would not be great, or not nearly so great; but it is always profound, solid, conscientious; and in its combinations original.

His proud imaginations thus display'd: o Pow'rs and Dominions, Deities of Heaven, 1. Ormus: An island in the Persian Gulf. The wealth consisted chiefly in diamonds and pearls and gold, called barbaric, after the man. All the speeches and debates in Pandemonium are well worthy of the place and the occasion, with gods for speakers, and angels and archangels for hearers.

There is a decided manly tone in the arguments and sentiments, an eloquent dogmatism, as if each person spoke from thorough conviction. For since no deep within her gulf can hold Imnrortal Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, though oppress'd and fall'n, I Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? not Heav'n for lost. From this descent Celestial virtues rising, will appear 15 More glorions and more dread than from no fall, And trust themselves to fear no second fate.

M e, though just right, and the fix'd laws of Heav'n, Did first create your leader, next free choice, With what besides, in council or in fight, 20 Hath been achieved of merit; yet this loss, Thus far at least recovered, hath much more Establish'd in a safe unenvied throne, Yielded with full consent.

The happier state In Heaven, which follows dignity, might draw 25 Envy from each inferior; but who here Will envy whom the highest place exposes Foremost to stand against the Thund'rer's aim Your bulwark, and condemns to greatest share Of endless pain? Where there is then no good 30 For which to strive, no strife can grow up there From faction; for none sure will claim in Hell Precedence; none, whose portion is so small Of present pain, that with ambitious mind Will c.

With this advantage then 35 To union, and firm faith, and firm accord, More than can be in Heav'n, we now return To claim our just inheritance of old, Surer to prosper than prosperity Could have assured us; and by what best way, 40 15. So in this Book, 1. Me: The position of this word at the commencement of the sentence, indicates, in a vivid manner, the arrogance and pride of the speaker.

That superior greatness and mock-majesty which is ascribed to the prince of fallen angels, is admirably preserved in the beginning of this book. He ceased: and next him Moloch, scepter'd king, Stood up, the strongest and the fiercest Sp'rit That fought in Heav'n, now fiercer by despair. With that care lost Went all his fear: of God, or Hell, or worse, He reck'd not; and these words thereafter spake: 50 My sentence is for open war: of wiles More unexpert I boast not: them let those Contrive who need, or when they need, not now.

For while they sit contriving, shall the rest, Millions that stand in arms, and longing wait 55 The signal to ascend, sit ling'ring here Heav'n's fugitives, and for their dwelling-place Accept this dark opprobrious den of shame, The prison of his tyranny who reigns By our delay?

Ný ut us rather choose, 60 Arm'd with Hell-flaffn: and fury, all at once O'er Heav'n's high tow'rs to force resistless way, Turning our tortures, into horrid arms Against the torturer; when to meet the noise Of his almighty engine he shall hear, 65 Infernal thunder, and for lightning see at the thought of which the whole infernal assembly trembled; his encountering the hideous phantom, who guarded the gates of hell, and appeared to him in all his terrors, are instances of that daring mind which could not brook submission even to Omnipotence.

Moloch: The part of Moloch is, in all its circumstances, full of that fire and fury which distinguish this spirit from the rest of the fallen angels. He is described in the First Book 1. In this Second Book, he is marked out as the fiercest spirit that fought in heaven; and, if we consider the figure which he makes in the Sixth Book, where the battle of the angels is described, we find it every way answerable to the same furious, enraged character.

But perhaps 70 The way seems difficult and steep, to scale With upright wing against a higher foe. Let such bethink them, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? the sleepy drench Of that forgetful lake benumb not still, That in our proper motion we ascend 75 Up to our native seat; descent and fall To us is ad Terse.

Who but felt of late, When the fierce foe hung on our broken rear Insulting, and pursued us through the deep, With what compulsion and laborious flight 80 We sunk thus low?

Th' ascent is easy then; Th' event is fear'd. Should we again provoke Our stronger, some worse way his wrath may find To our destruction, if there be in Hell Fear to be worse destroy'd. What can be worse 85 Than to dwell here, driv'n out from bliss, condemn'd In this abhorred deep to utter woe, Where pain of unextinguishable fire Must exercise us without hope of end, The vassals of his anger, when the scourge 90 Inexorably, and the tort'ring hour sixtieth to seventieth line.

His preferring annihilation to shame or misery, is also highly suitable to his character: so the comfort he draws from their disturbing the peace of heaven-that if it be not victory it is revenge-is a sentiment truly diabolical, and becoming the bitterness of Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? implacable fiend. An allusion is here made to Lethe, the River of Oblivion, one of the fabled streams of the infernal regions.

Its waters possessed the quality of causing those who Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? them to forget the whole of their former existence. This river is finely described by Milton in this Second Book, 1. Our stronger: Our superior in strength. Or if our substance be indeed divine, And cannot cease to be, we are at worst 100 On this side nothing; andby proof we feel Our pow'r sufficient to disturb his Heav'n, And with perpetual inroads to alarm, Though inaccessible, his fatal throne: Which, if not victory, is yet revenge.

On th' other side up rose Belial, in act more graceful and humane: A fairer person lost not Heav'n; he seem'd 110 For dignity composed and high exploit: But all was false and hollow, though his tongue 92. By calling to penance, Milton seems to intimate, that the sufferings of the condemned spirits are not always equally severe. Essential: The adjectiv for the substantive, essence, or existence. The sense is this: which annihilation is far happier than, in Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

condition of misery, to have eternal being. At worst: In the worst possible condition. Gods, in the proper sense. Belial, is described in the First Book as the idol of the lewd and luxurious. He is, in this Second Book, pursuant to that description, characterized as timorous and slothfil; and, if we look into the Sixth Book, we find him ce fTet ith tt the angels for nothing but that scoffing speech which he makes to Satan, on their supposed advantage over the enemy. As his appearance is uniform, and of a piece in these three several views, we find his sentiments in the infernal assembly every way conformable to his character.

Dropt manna, and could make the worse appear The better reason, to perplex and dash Maturest counsels: for his thoughts were low; 115 To vice industrious, but to nobler deeds Tim'rous and slothful: yet he pleased the ear, And with persuasive accent thus began: I should be much for open war, 0 Peers! As not behind in hate, if what was urged 120 Main reason to persuade immediate war, Did not dissuade me most, and seepi to cast Ominous conjecture on the whole success: When he who most excels in fact of arms, In what he counsels and in what excels 125 Mistrustful, grounds his courage on despair, And utter dissolution, as the scope Of all his aim, after some dire revenge.

The tow'rs of Heav'n are fill'd With armed watch, that render all access 130 Impregnable; oft on the bord'ring deep Encamp their legions, or with obscure wing Scout far and wide into the realms of night, Scorning surprise. Could make the worse appear the better reason: An exact translation of what the Greek sophists prfessed to accomplish.

Fact: Deed of arms, battle. On his throne sit unpolluted: This is a reply to that part of Moloch's speech, where he had threatened to mix the throne itself, of God, with infernal sulphur and strange fire.

Thus repulsed, our final hope Is flat despair. We must easperate Th' Almighty Victor to spend all his rage, And that must end us; that must be our cure, 145 To be no more? Sad cure; for who would lose, Though full of pain, this intellectual being, Those thoughts that wander through eternity, To perish rather, swallow'd up and lost In the wide womb of uncreated night, 150 Devoid of sense and motion?

And who knows, Let this be good, whether our angry Foe Can give it, or will ever? How he can Is doubtful; that he never will is sure. Will he, so wise, let loose at once his ire 155 Belike through impotence, or unaware, To give his enemies their wish, and end Them in his anger, whom his anger saves To punish Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

Say they who counsel war, we are decreed, 160 Reserved, and destined, to eternal woe Whatever doing, what can we suffer more, What can we suffer worse?

Is this then worst, Thus sitting, thus consulting, thus in arms? What when we fled amain, pursued and struck 165 With Heav'n's afflicting thunder, and besought The deep to shelter us?

This Hell then seem'd A refuge from those wounds: or when we lay Chain'd on the burning lake? What if the breath that kindled those grim fires, 170 Awaked should blow them into sev'nfold rage, And plunge us in the flames? Or from above Should intermitted vengeance arm again 152.

Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

Let this be good: Grant that this is good. What reason is there to expect annihilation? His red right hand to plague us? What if all Her stores were open'd, and this-firmament 175 Of Hell should spout her cataracts of fire, Impendent Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, threat'ning hideous fall One day upon our heads; while we perhaps Designing or exhorting glorious war, Caught in a fiery tempest, shall be hurl'd 180 Each on his rock, transfix'd, the sport and prey Of wracking whirlwinds, or for ever sunk Under yon boiling ocean, wrapt in chains; There to converse with everlasting groans, Unrespited, unpitied, unreprieved, 185 Ages of hopeless end?

War therefore, open or conceal'd, alike My voice dissuades; for what can force or guile With him, or who deceive his mind, whose eye Views all thing at one view?

He from Heav'n's height 190 All these our motions vain, sees and derides: Not more almighty to resist our might Than wise to frustrate all our plots and wiles. Shall we then live thus vile, the race of Heav'n Thus trampled, thus expell'd, to suffer here 195 Chains and these torments?

Better these than worse, By Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? advice: since fate inevitable Subdues us, and omnipotent decree, The Victor's will. To suffer, as to do, Our strength is equal; nor the law unjust 200 That so ordains. This was at first resolved, If we were wise, against so great a Foe 180. To suffer, as to do: Scasvola boasted that he was a Roman, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? knew as well how to suffer as to act.

This was at first resolved: Our minds were made up at first to this. I laugh, when those who at the spear are bold And vent'rous, if that fail them, shrink and fear 205 What yet they know must follow, to endure Exile or ignominy, or bonds, or pain, The sentence of their Conqu'ror.

This is now Our doom; which if we can sustain and bear, Our Supreme Foe in time may much remit 210 His anger, and perhaps, thus far removed, Not mind us not offending, satisfy'd With what is punish'd; whence these raging fires Will slacken, if his breath stir not their flames. Our purer essence then will overcome 215 Their noxious vapour, or inured not feel, Or changed at length, and to the place conform'd In temper and in nature, will receive Familiar the fierce heat, and void of pain; This horror will grow mild, this darkness light, 220 Besides what hope the never-ending flight Of future days may bring, what chance, what change Worth waiting, since our present lot appears For happy though but ill, for ill not worst, If we procure not to ourselves more woe.

Receive familiar: Receive as a matter made easy by habit. Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? same idea is uttered by Mammon, 1. Mammon: His character is so fully drawn in the First Book, that the poet adds nothing to it in the Second.

We were before told that he was the first who taught mankind to ransack the earth for gold and silver and, that he was the architect of Pandemonium, or the infernal palace where the evil spirits were to meet in council.

His speech, in this Book, is every way suitable to so depraved a character. The former vain to hope, argues as vain The latter; for what place can be for us 235 Within Heav'n's bound, unless Heav'n's Lord Supreme We overpow'r? Suppose he should relent, And publish grace to all, on promise made Of new subjection; with what eyes could we Stand in his presence humble, and receive 240 Strict laws imposed, to celebrate his throne With warbled hymns, and to his Godhead sing Forced hallelujahs, while he lordly sits Our envied Sovereign, and his altar breathes Ambrosial odour and ambrosial flow'rs, 245 Our servile offerings?

This must be our task In Heav'n, this our delight. How Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? Eternity so spent in worship paid To whom we hate! Let us not then pursue By force impossible, by leave obtain'd 250 Unacceptable, though in Heav'n, our state Of splendid vassalage; but rather seek Our own good from ourselves, and from our Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

Live to ourselves, though in this vast recess, Free, and to none accountable, preferring 255 Hard liberty before the easy yoke there, in the mouth of one who, while he was in heaven, is said to have had his mind dazzled with the outward pomps and glories of the place, and Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? have been more intent on the riches of the pavement than on the beatific vision.

The sentiments uttered in lines 262-273 are admirably characteristic of the same being. The strife: Between the King of Heaven and us, not between Fate and Chance. Our greatness will appear Then most conspicuous, when great things of small, Useful of hurtful, prosp'rous of adverse, We can create, and in what place soe'er, 260 Thrive under evil, and work ease out of pain Through labour and endurance.

This deep world Of darkness do we dread? How oft amidst Thick clouds and dark doth Heav'n's all-ruling Sire Choose to reside, his glory unobscured, 265 And with the majesty of darkness round Covers his throne; from whence deep thunders roar, Must'ring their rage, and Heav'n resembles Hell?

As he our darkness, cannot we his light Imitate when we please? This desert soil 270 Wants not her hidden lustre, gems and gold; Nor want we skill or art, from whence to raise Magnificence: and what can Heav'n shewomore?

Our torments also may in length of time Become our elements; these piercing fires 275 As soft as now severe, our temper changed Into their temper; which must needs remove The sensible of pain.

All things invite To peaceful counsels, and the settled state Of order, how in safety best we may 280 Compose our present evils, with regard Of what we are and where, dismissing quite All thoughts of war. Ye have what I advise.

He scarce had finish'd, when such murmur fill'd Th' assembly, as when hollow rocks retain 285 The sound of blust'ring winds, which all night long Had roused the sea, now with hoarse cadence lull Seafaring men o'erwatch'd, whose bark by chance Or pinnace anchors in a craggy bay 263-8. The imagery of this passage is drawn from Ps. The sensible of pain: The feeling, the sensation of pain.

These speeches are wonderfully fine; but the question is changed in the course of the debate. Such applause was heard 290 As Mammon ended, and his sentence pleased, Advising peace; for such another field They dreaded worse than Hell: so much the fear Of thunder and the sword of Michael Wrought still within them; and no less desire 295 To found this nether empire, which might rise By policy and long process of time, In emulation opposite to Heav'n: Which when Beelzeb.

Michael: A holy angel, who, in the Book of Daniel, chap. His name is introduced also in Rev. Beelzebub: This evil spirit, who is reckoned the second inignity hat fell and is, in the First Book, the second that anlen:-t sf t1o trance, and confers with Satan upon the situation of their affairs, maintains his rank in the Book now before us.

There is a wonderful majesty exhibited in his rising up to speak. He acts as a kind of moderator between the two opposite parties, and proposes a third undertaking, which the whole assembly approves. The motion he makes to detach one of their body in search of a new world, is grounded uopn a project devised by Satan, and cursorily proposed by him, in the First Book, 650-660.

It is on this project that Beelzebub grounds his proposal. Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? may be observed how just it was, not to omit in the First Book. Atlantean: An allusion to King Atlas, who, according to ancient mythology, was changed into a mountain on the northern coast of Africa, which, from its great height, was represented as supporting the atmosphere. Hell extend His empire, and with iron sceptre rule Us here, as with his golden those in Heav'n.

What sit we then projecting peace and war? War hath determined us, and foil'd with loss 330 Irreparable: terms of peace yet none Vouchsafed or sought: for what peace will be giv'n To us enslaved, but custody severe, And stripes and arbitrary punishment Inflicted? And what peace can we return, 335 But to our power hostility and hate, Untamed reluctance, and revenge though slow, Yet ever plotting how the Conqu'ror least May reap his conquest, and may least rejoice 329.

But to: But according to. The word but in this line, and in line 333; is used with a poetic freedom, somewhat as the word except is employed in ine 678.

In doing what we most in suffring feel? What if we find Some easier enterprise? There is a place, 345 If ancient and prophetic fame in Hcav'n Err not another world, the happy seat Of some new race call'd Man, about this time To be created like to us, though less In pow'r and excellence, but favour'd more 350 Of Him who rules above; so was his will Pronounced among the Gods, and by an oath, That shook Heav'n's whole circumference, confirm'd.

Thither let us bend all our thoughts, to learn What creatures there inhabit, of what mould 355 Or substance, how endued, and what their pow'r, And where their weakness; how attempted best, By force or subtlety.

Though Heav'n be shut, And Heav'n's high Arbitrator sit secure In his own strength, this place may lie exposed 360 The utmost border of his kingdom, left To their defence who hold it. Fame in Heaven: There is something wonderfully beautiful, and very apt Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? affect the reader's imagination, in this ancient prophecy, or report in Heaven, concerning the creation of man. Nothing could better show the dignity of the species, than this tradition respecting them before their existence.

They are represented to have been the talk of Heaven before they were created. An allusion, also, to Jupiter's oath. It has been objected that there is a contradiction between this part of Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? speech and what he says afterwards, speaking of the same thing; but, in reply, it may be observed, that his design is different in these different speeches.

In the former, where he is encouraging the assembly to undertake an expedition against this world, he says things to lessen the difficulty and danger; but in the latter, when they are seeking a proper person to perform it, he says things to magnify the danger, in order to make them more cautious in their choice. This would surpass 370 Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? revenge, and interrupt his joy In our confusion, and our joy upraise In his disturbance; when his darling sons, Hurl'd headlong to partake with us, shall curse Their frail original and faded bliss, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

Faded so soon. Advise if this be worth Attempting, or to sit in darkness here Hatching vain empires. Thus Beelzebub Pleaded his devilish counsel, first deised By Satan, and in part proposed: for whence, 380 But from the author of all ill, could spring So deep a malice, to confound the race Of mankind in one root, and Earth with Hell To mingle and involve, done all to spite The great Creator? J But their spite still serves 385 His glory to augment.

The bold design Pleased highly those infernal States, and joy Sparkled in all their eyes. With full assent They vote; whereat his speech he thus renews: 1 Well have ye judged, well ended long debate, 390 Synod of Gods, and like to what ye are, Great things resolved, which from the lowest deep Will once more lift us up, in spite of fate, Nearer our ancient seat; perhaps in view Of those bright confines, whence with neighb'ring arms 395 367.

Puny: Newly-created; derived from the French expression, puis n6, born since. The idea of feebleness is involved. Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? The decree of God. And opportune excursion, we may chance Re-enter Heav'n; or else in some mild zone Dwell not unvisited of Heav'n's fair light Secure, and at the bright'ning orient beam Purge off this gloom: the soft delicious air, 400 To heal the scar of these corrosive fires, Shall breathe her balm. But first, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

shall we send In search of this new world? What strength, what art, can then 410 Suffice, or what evasion bear him safe Through the strict senteries Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? stations thick Of Angels watching rou'd? Here he had need S circumspection, and we now no less Choice in our suffrage; for on whom we send, 415 The weight of all and our last hope relies.

This said, he Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? and expectation held His look suspense, awaiting who appear'd To second or oppose, or undertake The perilous attempt: but all sate mute 420 Pond'ring the danger with Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? thoughts; and each In other's count'nance read his own dismay 404.

Obscure: Obscurity, an adjective being used for a substantive. Choice: Judgment or care in choosing. His looks suspense means, His countenance in a fixed. None among the choice and prime Of those'Heav'n-warring champions could be found So hardy as to proffer or accept 425 Alone the dreadful voyage; till at last Satan, whom now transcendent glory raised Above his fellows, with monarchal pride, Conscious of highest worth, unmoved, thus spake: 0 Progeny of Heav'n, empyreal Thrones, 430 With reason hath deep silence and demur Seized us, though undismay'd: long is the way And hard that out of Hell leads up to light; Our prison strong; this huge convex of fire, Outrageous to devour, immures us round 435 Ninefold, and gates of burning adamant Barr'd over us prohibit all egress.

These pass'd if any pass, the void profound Of unessential Night receives him next Wide gaping, and with utter loss of being 440 Threatens him, plunged in that abortive gulf, If thence he 'scape into whatever world, Or unknown region, what remains him less Than unknown dangers, and as hard escape? But I should ill-become this throne, 0 Peers, 445 And this imperial sov'reignty, adorn'd With Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, arm'd with pow'r, if aught propos'd And judged of public moment, in the shape Of difficulty or danger, could deter Me from attempting.

Wherefore do I assume 450 429. Unmoved: That is, by the dangers in view. Convex: Vault of fire, bending down on all sides around us. The word properly denotes the exterior surface of a globe, and concave the interior, blt the poets use them promiscuously, as here. What is here called convex is called concave in line 635. Unessential: Unsubstantial, void of materiality.

An imitation of one of the noblest speeches in the Iliad, xii. These royalties, and not refuse to reign, Refusing to accept as great a share Of hazard as of honour; due alike To him who reigns, and so much to him due Of hazard more, as he above the rest 455 High honour'd sits?

Go, therefore, mighty Powers, Terror of Heav'n, though fall'n; itend at home, While here shall be our home, what best may ease The present misery, aud render Hell More tolerable; if there be cure or charm 460 To respite, or deceive, or slack the pain Of this ill mansion; intermit no watch Against a wakeful foe, while I abroad Through all the coasts of dark destruction, seek Deliv'rance for us all.

This enterprise 465 None shall partake with me. But they Dreaded not more th' adventure than his voice Forbidding; and at once with him they rose; 475 Their rising all at once was as the sound Of thunder heard remote.

Tow'rds him they bend With awful rev'rence prone; and as a God Extol him equal to the High'st in Heav'n: Nor fail'd they to express how much they praised, 480 That for the gen'ral safety he despised His own: for neither do the Spirits damn'd Lose all their virtue: lest bad men should boast 457. Devil with Devil damn'd Firm c onord holds, men only disagree Of creatures rational, though under hope Of heav'nly grace: and God proclaiming peace, Yet live in hatred, enmity, and strife 500 Among themselves, and levy cruel wars, Wasting the earth, each other to destroy; As if which might induce us to accord Man had not hellish foes enough besides, 483.

Milton intimates above, that the fallen and degraded state of man, or his individual vice, is not at all disproved by some of his external actions not appearing totally base. The commentators should have observed, in explaining this passage, that the whole grand mystery on which the poem depends, is the first fearful spiritual alienation of Satan from God, the only fountain of truth and all real positive good; and that, when thus separated, whether the spirit be that of man or devil, it may perform actions fair in appearance, but not essentially good, because springing from no fixed pri-- ciple of good.

While the north wind sleeps: A simile of perfect beauty: it illustrates the delightful feeling resulting from the contrast of the stormy debate with the light that seems subsequently to break in upon the assembly. Scowls: Drives in a frowning manner. O shame to men: The reflections of the poet here are of great practical wisdom and importance. They were suggested, probably, by the civil commotions and animosities of his own times. That day and night for his destruction wait. Then of their session ended they bid cry With trumpets' regal sound the great result: 515 Tow'rds the four winds four speedy Cherubim Put to their mouths the sounding alchemy By herald's voice explain'd; the hollow abyss Heard far and wide, and all the host of Hell With deaf'ning shout return'd them loud acclaim.

Part on the lain, or in the air sublime, 507. Stygian: An epithet derived from Styx, the name of a distinguished river in the infernal regions, according to the Pagan mythology; it here means the same as the word infernal. Globe: A body of men formed into a circle. That is, with glittering ensigns, and bristled arms, or arms with points standing outward. Part on the plain, yc. Others, with vast Typhoean rage more fell, Rend up both rocks and hills, and ride the air 540 In whirlwind; Hell scarce holds the wild uproar.

As when Alcides, from Oechalia crown'd With conquest, felt th' envenom'd robe, and tore every way suitable to beings who had nothing left them but strength and knowledge misapplied. These warlike diversions of the fallen angels; seem to be copied from the military exercises of the Myrmidons during the absence of their chief from the war.

Couch their spears: Put them in a posture for attack: put them in their rests. Typhanan: Gigantic, from Typhceus, one of the giants of Pagan mythology, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? fought against Heaven. He was a celebrated hero, who received, after death, divine honours. Having killed the King of Echalia, in Greece, and led away his beautiful daughter lole, as a captive, he raised an altA to Jupiter, and sent off for a splendid robe to wear when he~ siould ofer a sacrifice.

De'lanira, in a fit of jealousy, efore sending the robe, d it wiacertaipoisonous preparation. Hercules soon found that the robe was consuming his flesh, and adhered so closely to his skin, that it could not be separated.

In the agony of the momenthe seized Lichas. This name is given to a chain of mountains in Thessaly, the eastern extremity of which, in conjunction with the sea, formed the celebrated pass of Thermopylae. Through pain up by the roots Thessalian pines, And Lichas from the top of Oeta threw 545 Into th' Euboic sea. Others more mild, Retreated in a silent valley, sing With notes angelical to many a harp Their Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

heroic deeds and hapless fall By doom of battle; and complain that Fate 550 Free virtue should inthrall to force or chance. Their song was partial, but the harmony What could it less when Spirits immortal sing? Suspended Hell, and took with ravishment The thronging audience. In discourse more sweet 555 For eloquence the soul, song charms the sense Others apart sat on a hill retired, In thoughts more elevate, and reason'd high Of providence, foreknowledge, will, and fate, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

fate, free-will, foreknowledge absolute, 560 And found no end, in wand'ring mazes lost Of good and evil much they argued then, Of happiness and final misery, Passion and apathy, glory and shame, Vain wisdom all, and false philosophy: 565 547.

Partial: Too favourable to themselves. Or the word may express this idea. Confined to few and inferior topics-those relating to war. Suspended Hell: The effect of their singing is somewhat like that of Orpheus in Hell. Another part in squadrons and gross bands, 570 On bold adventure to discover wide That dismal world, if any clime perhaps Might yield them easier habitation, bend Four ways their flying march, along the banks Of four infernal rivers, that disgorge 575 Into the burning lake their baleful Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

Abhorred Styx, the flood of deadly hate; Sad Acheron of sorrow, black and deep; 566. This episode of the fallen spirits and their place of habitation, comes in very happily to unbend the mind of the reader from its attention to the debate.

Our poet follows their example both as to the number and the names of these infernal rivers, and excellently describes their nature and properties, with the explanation of their names.

As to the situation of these rivers, Milton does not confine himself to the statements of Greek or Latin Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, but draws out a new map of these rivers. He supposes a burning lake, agreeably to Scripture; and into this lake he makes these four rivers to flow from different directions, which gives us a greater idea than any of the heathen poets have furnished. The river of Oblivion is rightly placedfar off from the rivers of Hatred, Sorrow, Lamentation, and Rage; and divides the frozen continent from the region of fire, and, thereby, completes the map of Hell with its general divisions.

Cocytus, named of lamentation loud Heard on the rueful stream; fierce Phlegethon, 580 Whose waves of torrent fire inflame with rage. Beyond this flood a frozen continent Lies dark and wild, beat with perpetual storms Of whirlwind and dire hail, which on firm land Thaws not, but gathers heap, and ruin seems 590 Of ancient pile; all else deep snow and ice A gulf profound as that Serbonian bog Betwixt Damiata and Mount Casius old, Where armies whole have sunk: the parching air Burns frore, and cold performs th' effect of fire.

Dire hail: Compare Horace, Ode ii. Serbonian bog: A morass between Egypt and Palestine, near Mount Casius. The loose sand of the adjacent country sometimes covered it to such an extent as to give it the appearance of firm land. Burns frore: Burns frosty, or with frost. Starve: Kill with cold; a sense common in England, but not used in this country. They ferry over this Lethean sound Both to and fro, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? sorrow to augment, 605 And wish and struggle, as they pass, to reach The tempting stream, with one small drop to lose In sweet forgetfulness all pain and All in one moment, and so near the brink; But fate withstands, and to oppose th' attempt 610 Medusa with Gorgonian terror guards The ford, and of itself the water flies All taste of living wight, as once it fled The lip of Tantalus Thus roving on In confused march forlorn, th' advent'rous bands 615 With shudd'ring horror pal- and eyes aghast, View'd first their lamentable lot, and found No rest.

Through many a dark and dreary vale They pass'd, and many a region dolorous, 603. This is a fine allegory, designed to show that there is no forgetfulness in Hell. Memory makes a part of the punishment ot the damned, and the reflection but increases their misery. Medusa: A fabulous being, who had two sisters.

The three were called Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, from their terrible aspect which turned the beholder into stone.

The upper part of the body and the head, according to the fable, resembled those of a woman; the lower part was like a serpent. Tantalus: A Grecian prince, who, for cruelty to his son, was condemned to perpetual hunger and thirst in Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?.

The English word tantalize is derived from this story, which is adapted, if not designed, to show that there is no forgetfulness in Hell, but that memory and reflection torture its inhabitants. By words we have it in our power says Burke to make such rombrinations as we cannot possibly make otherwise. Milton's Hell is the most fantastic piece of fancy, based on the broadest superstructure of imagination.

It presents such a scene as though Switzerland were set on fire. Such an uneven, colossal region, full of bogs, caves, hollow valleys, broad lakes and towering Alps, has Milton's genius cut out from Chaos, and wrapped in devouring flames, leaving, indeed, here and there a snowy mountain, or a frozen Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, for a variety in the horror.

This wilderness Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? death is the platform which imagination raises and peoples with the fallen thrones, dominations, princedoms, virtues, and powers.

On it the same poem, in its playful fanciful mood, piles up the pandemonian Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, suggests the trick by which the giant fiends reduce their stature, shrinking into imps, and seats at the gates of Hell the monstrous forms of Sin and Death.

These have often been objected to, as if they were unsuccessful and abortional efforts of imagination, whereas they are the curvettings and magnificent nonsense of that power after its proper work, the creation of Hell, has been performed. The great literary merit of Milton's Hell, especially as compared to Dante's, is the union of a general sublime indistinctness, with a cleal statuesque marking out'from, or painting on, the gloom, of individual forms.

The one describes Hell like an angel passing through it in haste, and with time only to behold its leading outlines and figures; the other, like a pilgrim, compelled with slow and painful steps, to thread all its high-ways and byways of pain and punishment.

Hydra: A fabled monster serpent in the marsh of Lemnos in the Peloponnesus, which had many heads, and those when cut off, were immediately replaced by others. Chimera: A fabulous monster, vomiting flames, having the head of a lion, the body of a goat, and tail of a serpent.

Hence the term is now applied to anything self-contradictory or absurd-to a mere creature of the imagination. Sometimes He scours the right hand coast, sometimes tle left, Now shaves with level wing the deep, then soars Up to the fiery concave tow'ring high.

So seem'd Far off the flying Fiend: at last appear Hell bounds, high reaching to the horrid roof, And thrice threefold the gates; three folds were brass, Three iron, three of adamantine rock, 645 Impenetrable, impaled with circling fire, Yet unconsumed.

Before the gates there sat 636. Bentley Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, why a fleet when a first-rate man-of-war would db? Pearce answers, Because a fleet gives a nobler image than a single ship; and it is a fleet of Indiamen, because, coming from so long a voyage, it is the fitter to be compared to Satan in this expedition. The equinoctial are the trade winds.

The fleet is described as close sailing, and is therefore more proper to be compared to a single person. Pearce observes that Milton in his similitudes as is the practice of Homer and Virgil tooafter he has shown the common resemblance as here in line 637often takes the liberty of wandering into some unresernbling circumstances; which have no other relation to the comparison than that it gave him the hint, and, as it were, set fire to the train of his imagination.

Ternate and Tidore: Spice islands east of Borneo. By night they sail towards the north pole. Hell bounds: The boundaries of Hell. The old romances frequently speak of enchanted castles being empaled with circling fire. The allegory that follows is a poetic paraphrase upon James i. The picture of Sin here given, may have been suggested by a line in Horace.

Hesiod's Echidna is also described as half woman, and half serpent. The mention of the Hell-hounds about her middle, Milton has drawn from the fable of Scylla 660.

The genealogy of the several persons is contrived 'with great delicacy. Sin is the daughter of Satan, and Death the offspring of Sin. The incestuous mixture between Sin and eath, produces those monsters and Hell-hounds which, from time to time, enter into the mother and tear the bowels of her who gave them birth.

These are the terrors of an evil conscience, and the proper fruits of sin, which naturally arise from the apprehension of death. This is clearly intimated in the speech of Sin.

Addison further calls our attention to the justness of thought which is observed in the generation of these several symbolical persons; that Sin was produced upon the first revolt of Satan-that Death appeared soon after he was cast into Hell, and, that the terrors of conscience were conceived at the gate of this place of torment.

Iddison is generally ingenious in his criticisms, but not elevated; and when he objected to Milton's having introduced an allegory, he shows that he was incapable of entering into the magnificent conceptions of his author.

Sin and Death are not allegorical beings in Paradise Lost; but real and activ;e existences. Far less abhorr'd than thege Vex'd Scylla, bathing in the sea that parts 660 Calabria from the hoarse Trinacrian shore Nor uglier follow the night-hag, whencalPd In secret, riding Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? the air she lmnes, Lured with the smell of infant blood, to dance With Lapland witches, while the lab'ring moon 665 Eclipses at their charms.

The other shape, If shape it might be call'd that shape had none Distinguishable in member, joint, or limb, Or substance might be call'd that shadow seem'd, For each seem'd either; black it stood as Night, 670 berus, who possessed three heads, and guarded the entrance in Tartarus, to prevent the escape of the condemned. Scylla: Scylla and Charybdis are the names, the former of a rock on the Italian shore, in the strait between Sicily and the main land; and the latter of a whirlpool, or strong eddy, over against it on the Sicilian side.

The ancients connected a fabulous story with each name. Scylla was originally a beautiful woman, but was changed by Circe into a monster, the parts below her waist becoming a number of dogs, incessantly barking while she had twelve feet and hands, and six heads, with three rows of teeth. Terrified at this metamorphosis, she threw herself into the sea, and was changed into the rocks which bear her name.

Calabria: Southern part of Italy. The lab'ring moon: The ancients believed the moon to be greatly affected by magical practices; and the Latin poets call the eclipses of the moon labores lunce.

The three foregoing lines, and the former part of this, contain a short account of what was once believed, and in Milton's time not so ridiculous as now. The other shape: The figure of Death, the regal crown upon his head. This description of Death, was probably suggested by Spenser, Faery Queen, book viii. Fierce as ten Furies, terrible as Hell, And shook a dreadful dart. What seem'd his head The likeness of a kingly crown had on. Satan was now at hand, and from his seat, The monster moving onward, came as fast 675 With horrid stri- Hell trembled as he strode.

Through them I mean to pass, That be assured, without leave ask'd of thee: 685 Retire or taste thy folly, and learn by proof, Hell-born, not to contend with Spirits of Heav'n.

To whom the goblin full of wrath reply'd, Art thou that Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? Angel, art thou He, Who first broke peace in Heav'n, and faith, till then 690 Unbroken, and in proud rebellious arms Drew after him the third part of Heav'n's sons, 671.

Furies: An allusion to three daughters of Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, whose office it was to torment the guilty in Tartarus, and often to punish the living, by producing fatal epidemics, the devastations of war, insanity, and murders. They were represented with vipers twining among their hair, usually with frightful countenances, in dark and bloody robes, and holding the torch of discord or vengeance.

That superior greatness and mock-majesty which is ascribed to the prince of fallen angels, is admirably preserved in every portion of this book. His opening and closing the debate; his taking on himself that great enterprise, at the thought of which the whole infernal assembly trembled; his encountering the hideous phantom who guarded the gates of Hell, and appeared to him Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? all its terrors, are instances of that proud and daring mind which could not brook submission even to Omnipotence.

The same boldness and intrepidity of behaviour discovers itself in the several adventures which he meets with during his passage through the regions of unformed matter, and, particularly in his address to those tremendous Powers who are described 960-970 as presiding over it. So sbh the gisly terror, and in shape, So speaming, and so threat'ning, grew tenfold 705 More dreadful and deform.

On th' other side, Incensed with Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, Satan stood Unterrify'd, and like a comet burn'd, That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In th' arctic sky, and from his horrid hair 710 Shakes pestilence and war. Each at the head Levell'd his deadly aim; their fatal hands No second stroke intend, and such a frown Each cast at th' other, as when two black clouds, With Heav'n's artill'ry fraught, come rattling on 715 678-679. Except: This passage will not bear a critical examination, for it implies that God and his Son are created things; but the poet intended to convey no such idea.

If for created, the word existing be substituted, the sense would be unembarassed. The word but is used with similar looseness in lines 333, 336. Ophiuchus, or Serpentarius: One of the northern constellations. Pliny has this expression ii. Poetry delights in omens, prodigies, and such wonderful events as were supposed to follow upon the appearance of comets, eclipses, and like events.

Over the Caspian; then stand front to front Hov'ring a space, till winds the signal blow To join their dark encounter in mid-air. So frown'd the mighty combatants, that Hell Grew larker at their frown, so match'd they stood: 720 For n:ver but oge more was either like To meet so great Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? foe: and now great deeds Had b. What fury, 0 Son, Possesses thee to bend that mortal dart Against thy Father's head? She spake, and at her words the hellish pest 735 Forbore; then these to her Satan return'd.

So strange thy outcry, and thy words so strange Thou interposest, that my sudden hand Prevented, spares to tell thee yet by deeds What it intends, till first I know of thee, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? 716. Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? Caspian is said to be subject to violent storms. Once more: In the person of Jesus Christ 734. Out of thy head I sprung: An allusion to the heathen fable of the goddess Minerva springing out of the head of Jupiter.

Her appearance is represented as producing, among the eavenly beings, at first, amazement and terror; but afterwards securing the approbation and favour of a multitude of them. This representation exhibits the horror in which the idea of sinning against God was first regarded, and the change of views among the sinning angels, upon becoming accustomed to acts of transgression.

The same thinmg is true among men, particularly among the young when led astray from a moral course. In the seventh and eighth chapters of Paul's Epistle to the Romans, and in the first chapter of the Epistle of James, may be found, also, a vivid personification of sin. Meanwhile war arose, And fields were Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

in Heav'n; wherein remain'd For what could else? Down they fell, Driv'n headlong from the pitch of Heav'n, down Into this deep, and in the general fall 760. For a sign: As a prodigy, or phenomenon. Growing burthen: This symbolizes the increasing atrocity and hideousness of a course of transgression, or its tendency to propagate itself. I also; at which time this powerful key Into my hand was giv'n, with charge to keep 775 These gates for ever shut; which none can pass Without my op'ning.

Pensive here I sat Alone; but long I sat not, till my womb Pregnant by thee, and now excessive grown, Prodigious motion felt and rueful throes 780 At last this odious offspring whom thou seest Thine own begotten, breaking violent way, Tore through my entrails, that with fear and pain Distorted, all my nether shape thus grew Transform'd: but he my inbred enemy 785 Forth issued, brandishing his fatal dart, Made to destroy.

I fled, but he pursued though more, it seems, 790 Inflamed with lust than rage Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, and swifter far, Me overtook, his mother all dismay'd, And in embraces forcible and foul Ingend'ring with me, of that rape begot These yelling monsters, that with ceaseless cry 795 Surround me, as thou saw'st, hourly conceived And hourly born, with sorrow infinite To me; for when they list, into the womb That bred them they return, and howl and gnaw My bowels, their repast; then bursting forth 800 Afresh with conscious terrors vex me round, That rest or intermission none I find.

Death: Death is represented, in the Holy Scriptures, as the product of sin. Yelling monsters: These creatures symbolize the pangs of remorse which torment the sinner, and his fearful apprehensions in prospect of death. But thou, 0 Father, I forewarn thee, shun 810 His deadly arrow; neither vainly hope To be invulnerable in those bright arms, Though temper'd heav'nly, for that mortal dint, Save He who reigns above, none can resist.

She finish'd, and the subtle Fiend his lore 815 Soon learn'd, now milder, and thýus answer'd smooth. Dear Daughter, since thou claim'st me for thy sire, And my fair son here show'st me, the dear pledge Of dalliance had with thee in Heav'n, and joys Then sweet, now sad to mention, through dire change 820 Befall'n us unforeseen, unthought of; know I come no enemy, but to set free From out this dark and dismal house of pain Both him and thee, and all the heav'nly host Of Spirits, that in our just pretences arm'd 825 805-7.

There is a beautiful circumstance alluded to in these lines. The heathen poets make Jupiter superior to Fate. But Milton, with great propriety, makes the fallen angels and Sin here attribute events to Fate, without any mention of the Supreme Being. Dear daughter: Satan had now learned his lore or lesson, and the reader will observe how artfully he changes his language.

He had said before 745that he had never seen sight more detestable; but now it is dear daughter, and my fair son. Both him and thee, s-c. Fell with Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? on high: from them I go This uncouth errand sole, and one for all Myself expose, with lonely steps to tread Th' unfounded deep, and through the void immense To search with wand'ring quest a place foretold 830 Should be, and, by concurring signs, ere now Created vast and round, a place of bliss In the purlieus of Heav'n, and therein placed A race of upstart creatures to supply Perhaps our vacant room, though more removed, 835 Lest Ieav'n surcharged with potent multitude Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

hap to move new broils: Be this or aught Than this more secret now design'd, I haste To know, and this once known, shall soon return, And bring ye to the place where thou and Death 840 Shall dwell at ease, and up and down unseen Wing silently the buxom air, embalm'd With odours: there ye shall be fed and fill'd Immeasurably, all things shall be your prey.

Bring ye: It was Satan's horrid design to introduce sin and death into our world. Death: The penalty of disobeying God. Fearless to be o'ermatch'd by living might. Thou art my father, thou my author, thou My being gav'st me; whom should I obey 865 But thee, whom follow? Living might: Except that of God, at whose command Sin and Death were appointed to guard the gates of Hell. Owe I: Sin refuses obedience to God, casts off allegiance to Him.

Sin was born in Heaven when Satan committed his first offence 864-5. Whom follow: That is, whom shall I follow? Sin yields obedience to Satan. So every act of human transgression is represented in Scripture as an act of homage to Satan. It is one great part of the poet's art, to know when to describe things in general, and when to be very circumstantial and particular. Milton hao, in this and the following lines, shown his judgment in this respect. The first opening of the gates of Hell by Sin, is an Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

of such importance that every Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? attention must have been greatly excited, and, cons quently, as highly gratified by the minute detail of particulars our authcl has given us.

It may, with justice, be further observed, that in no part of the poem the versification is better accommodated to the sense. The drawing up of the portcullis, the turning of the key, the sudden shooting of the bolts, and the flying open of the doors, are, in some sort, described by the very break and sound of the verse.

Sad instrument of all our woe: The escape of Satan to our world was the occasion of human sin and misery. Forthwith the huge portcullis high up-drew, Which but herself, not all the Stygian pow'rs 875 Could once Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? moved; then in the key-hole turns Th' intricate wards, and ev'ry bolt and bar Of massy iron or solid rock with ease Unfastens. On a sudden open fly With impetuous recoil and jarring sound 880 Th' infernal doors, and on their hinges grate Harsh thunder, that the lowest bottom shook Of Erebus.

She open'd; but to shut Excell'd her pow'r: the gates wide open stood, That with extended wings a banner'd host 885 Under spread ensigns marching might pass through With horse and chariots rank'd in loose array; So wide they stood, and like a furnace mouth 879-883. There is a harshness in the sound of the words, that happily corresponds to the meaning conveyed, or to the fact described.

This correspondence of the sound of the language to the sense, is a great rhetorical beauty: in this case. The external shell of this globe is called by the poets brazen and iron, probably only to express its solidity. The superior hemisphere was named Heaven: the inferior one, Tartarus. The length of the diameter of the hollow sphere, is thus given by Hesiod. It would take, he says, nine days for an anvil to fall from Heaven to Earth; and an equal space of time would be occupied by its fall from Earth to the bottom of Tartarus.

The luminaries which gave light to gods and men, shed their Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? through all the interior Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? the upper hemisphere; while that of the inferior one was filled with gloom and darkness, and its still air was unmoved by any wind. Tartarus was regarded, at this period, as the prison of the gods, and not as the place of torment for wicked men, being to the gods what Erebus was to men-the abode of those who were driven from the supernal world.

Erebus lay between the Earth and Hades, beneath the latter of which Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? Tartarus. Before their eyes in sudden view Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? 890 The secrets of the hoary deep, a dark Illimitable ocean, without bound, Without dimension, where length, breadth, and heighth, And time, and place, are lost; where eldest Night And Chaos, ancestors of Nature, hold 895 Eternal anarchy, amidst the noise Of endless wars, and by confusion stand.

For hot, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, moist, and dry, four champions fierce Strive here for mast'ry, and to battle bring Their embryon atoms; they around the flag 900 Of each his faction, in their sev'ral clans, Light-arm'd or heavy, sharp, smooth, swift, or slow, Swarm populous, unnumber'd as the sands Of Barc or Cyrene's torrid soil, Levy'd to side with warring winds, and poise 905 394-5.

Night: By the Romans, Night was personified as the daughter of Chaos. Both are here represented as progenitors of Nature, by which the arranged creation is meant. Dropping the allegory, the idea conveyed, is that night and chaos, or darkness and a confused state of matter, preceded the existence of nature, or of the universe in its fully arranged and organized form.

Night and Chaos are represented as the monarchs of a confused stale of the elements of things, among which hot, cold, moist, or dry, like four fierce champions, are striving for the mastery. The false Epicurean theory of creation is here alluded to, according to which the worlds were produced by a fortuitous concourse of atoms.

Barca: For the most part a desert country, on the northern coast of Africa, extending from the Syrtis Major as far as Egypt. Cyrene, was the capital of Cyrenaica which was included in Barcaon the shore of the Mediterranean, west of Egypt. The atoms, or indivisible particles of matter, are compared, in respect to number and motion, to the sands of an African desert, which are mustered to side with, or assist, contending winds in their mutiial struggles.

To whom these most adhere, He rules a moment; Chaos umpire sits, And by decision more embroils the fray By which he reigns: next him high arbiter Chance governs all. Into this wild abyss, 910 The womb of Nature, and perhaps her grave, Of neither sea, nor shore, nor air, nor fire, But all these in their pregnant causes mix'd Confus'dly, and which thus must ever fight, Unless th' Almighty Maker them ordain 915 His dark materials to create more worlds; Into this wild abyss the wary Fiend Stood on the brink of Hell and look'd a while, Pond'ring his voyage: for no narrow frith the winds.

An allusion is here made to the birds described by Pliny, as ballasting themselves with small stones when a storm rises; or, to the bees described by Virg. To whom these most: The reason why any one of these champions rules though but for a momentis, because the atoms of his faction adhere most to him; or, the meaning may be, to whatever Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

the atoms temporarily adhere, that side rules for the moment. Wild abyss: Milton's system of the universe is, in short, that the Empyrean Heaven, and Chaos, and Darkness, were before the Creation-Heaven above and Chaos beneath; and then, upon the rebellion of the angels, first Hell was formed out of Chaos, stretching far and wide beneath; and afterwards Heaven and Earth were formed-another world hanging over the realm of Chaos, and won from his dominion.

A similar liberty is taken by the poet, in the transposition of words, in Book V. Pondering his voyage: In Satan's voyage through the chaos, there are several imaginary persons described as residing in that immense waste of matter.

This may, perhaps, be conformable Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? the taste of those critics who are pleased with nothing in a poet which has not life and manners ascribed to it; but, for my own part, says Addison, I am pleased most with those passages in this description, which carry in them a greater measure of probability. Of this kind is his 'first mounting in the smnoke that rises from the infernal pit; his falling into a cloud of nitre, andl te!.

Nor was his ear less peal'd 920 With noises loud and ruinous to compare Great things with small than when Bellona storms With all her batt'ring engines bent, to raze Some capital city; or less than if this frame Of Heav'n were falling, and these elements 925 In mutiny had from her axle torn The steadfast earth.

Bellona: The goddess of war. As the air and water are both fluids, the metaphors taken from the one are often applied to the other, and flying is compared to sailing, and sailing to flying. Pennons: The common meaning is banners; but it probably is used forpinions, and is synonymous with vans, used above. Ill chance: An ill chance for mankind that he was so far speeded on his journey. That fury stay'd: That fiery rebuff ceased, quenched and, put out by a soft quicksand.

Syrtis is explained by neither sea nor land, exactly agreeing with Lucan. As when a gryphon through the wilderness With winged course, o'er hill or moory dale, Pursues the Arimaspian, who by stealth 945 Had from his wakeful custody purloin'd The guarded gold: so eagerly the Fiend O'er bog, or steep, through strait, rough, dense or rare, With head, hands, wings, or feet pursues his way, And swims, or sinks, or wades, or creeps, or flies: 950 At length a universal hubbub wild Of stunning sounds and voices all confused, Borne through the hollow dark, assaults his ear With loudest vehemence: thither he plies, Undaunted to meet there whatever Pow'r 955 Or Spirit of the nethermost abyss Might in that noise reside, of whom to ask Which way the nearest coast of darkness lies 940.

Grypho: An imaginary animal, part eagle and part lion, said to watch ver mines of gold, and whatever was hidden for safe keeping. The Arimaspia s ere a people of Scythia, who, according to the legend related erodotus, had but one eye, and waged a continual warfare with the griffons that guarded the gold, which was found in great abundance where these people resided. The difficulty of Satan's voyage is very well expressed by so many monosyllables, which cannot be pronounced but slowly, and with frequent pauses.

Nethermost: While the throne of Chaos was above Hell, and, consequently, a part of the abyss was so, a part of that abyss was, at the same time, far below Hell; so far below, that when Satan Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? from Hell on his voyage, he fell in that abyss ten thousand fathoms deep 934and the poet there adds that if it had not been for an accident, he had been falling down there to this hour; nay, it was illimitable, and where height is lost.

Of course the abyss, considered as a whole, was nethermost in respect to Hell. Orcus and Ades: Orcus and Hades. These terms usually denote the abodes of departed spirits; sometimes are used as names of Pluto, the fabled deity that presides over those abodes. They are here personified, and occupy a place in the court of Chaos. There was a notion among the, ancients of a certain deity, whose very name they supposed capable of producing the most terrible effects, and which they therefore dreaded to pronounce, He was considered as possessing great power in incantations; and to have obtained this name from the power which he had of looking with impunity upon the Gorgon, that turned all other spectators to stone.

Other writers have introduced, with general approbation, similar fictitious beings. Secrets: Secret places is the more probable meaning: yet it may mean, secret counsels and transactions.

Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? saw and heard; for such a num'rous host Fled not in silence, through the frighted deep With ruin upon ruin, rout on Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, 995 Confusion worse confounded; and Heav'n gates Pour'd out by millions her victorious bands Pursuing. I upon my frontiers here Keep residence; if all I can will serve That little which is left so to defend, 1000 Encroach'd on still through your intestine broils, Weak'ning the sceptre of old Night: first Hell 981.

Lost: That is, to those whom he addressed, having been withdrawn from a chaotic condition. So: In this manner; that is, by keeping my residence on the froniiers, and doing all I can. First Hell was encroached on. He ceased, and Satan stay'd not to reply; 1010 But glad that now his sea should find a shore.

With fresh alacrity and force renew'd, Springs upward like a pyramid of fire Into the wild expanse, and through the shock Of fighting elements, on all sides round 1015 Environ'd, wins his way; harder beset 1004. Another world was encroached on. The idea may have been suggested by the golden chain with which Jupiter is described in the Iliad, book viii.

Heaven, in these lines, denotes the residence of Deity, and the abode of righteous men and angels, called the empyreal Heaven, line 1047. The question arises, how the intestine broils, originated by the fallen angels, had produced the encroachments above referred to? To this question, the answer may be rendered, that Hell was created out of chaotic materials to serve as a prison for the apostate angels; and that our world was created out of similar materials to furnish an abode for a holy race that might serve as a compensation for the loss of the fallen angels from the services of Heaven.

Night's sceptre was thus weakened by the withdrawment of a part of her dominions. Find a shore: A metaphor, expressive of his joy that now his travel and voyage should terminate; somewhat like that of one of the ancients, who, reading a tedious book, and coming near to the end, cried, I see land, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? video. Like a pyramid of fire: To take in the full meaning of the magnificent similitude, we must imagine ourselves in chaos, and a vast luminous body rising upward near the place where we are, so swiftly as to appear a continued track of light, and lessening to the view according to the increase of distance, till it end in a point, and then disappear; and all this must Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

supposed to strike our eye at one instant. And more endanger'd than when Argo pass'd Through Bosphorus, betwixt the justling rocks; -Pr when Ulysses on the larboard shunn'd Charybdis, and by th' other whirlpool steer'd.

Sin and Death amain Following his track, such was the will Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? Heav'n, 1025 Paved after him a broad and beaten way Over the dark abyss, whose boiling gulf Tamely endured a bridge of wondrous length From Hell continued reaching th' utmost orb 1017.

Argo: There was an ancient fable that two small islands, called Symplegades, at the mouth of the Thracian Bosphorus Straits of Constantinoplefloated about, and sometimes united to crush those vessels which chanced at the time to Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? passing through the Straits.

The ship Argo, on its way to Colchis, had a narrow escape in passing, having lost the extremity of the stern. The repetition of the idea also favors the same result. Utmost orb: The idea here conveyed is entirely different from what to most readers will seem the obvious one. Ready now To stoop with wearied wings and willing feet On the bare outside of this world, that seem'd Firm land embosorn'd without firmament, Uncertain which.

The poet, in these passages, brings up before our imagination, an immense opaque hollow sphere, separating the reign of Chaos and Old Night'from the solar and sidereal systenm. Here Nature first begins Her farthest verge, and Chaos to retire As from her outmost works a broken foe With tumult less, and with less hostile din, 1040 That Satan with less toil, and now with ease, Wafts on the calmer wave by dubious light, And like a weather-beaten vessel holds Gladly the port, though shrouds and tackle torn; Or in the emptier waste, resembling air, 1045 Weighs his spread wings, at leisure to behold Far off th' empyreal Heav'n, extended wide In circuit, undetermined square or round, 1046.

Empyreal Heaven: The highest and purest region of heaven, or simply, the pure and brilliant heaven, from a word signifying fire. Undetermined square or round: Of no definite boundaries.

This pendent world: The earth alone is not meant, but the new creation, Heaven and Earth, the whole orb of fixed stars, including the planets, the earth and the sun.

Hung o'er my realm, linke 1 in a golden chain. This pendent world, therefore, must mean the whole world, in the sense of universe, then new created, which, when observed from a distance, afar off, appeared. With opal tow'is and Lattlements adorn'd Of living sapplhire, once his native seat; 1050 And fast by hanging in a golden chain This pendent world, in bigness as a star Of smallest magnitude close by the moon. Thither full fraught with mischievous revenge, Accursed, and in a cursed hour he hies.

How beautiful, and how poetical also, thus to open the scene by degrees! This progress is described in the next Book, 418 -430; 498-590; 722-743. To some readers it will not be unprofitable or unacceptable to offer some remarks on this subject, drawn from Addison's Spectator. Milton, in conformity with the practice of the ancient poets, has infused a great many Latinisms, as well as Graecisms, and sometimes Hebraisms.

Under this head may be ranked the placing the adjective after the esLstntive. Sometimes particular words are extended or contracted by the insertion or omission of certain syllables. Milton has put in practice this method of raising his language, as Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

as the Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? of our tongue will permit, as eremite for hermit. For the sake of the measure of his verse. It is chiefly observable in the names of persons and countries, as Beelzebub, Hessebon, and in many other particulars, wherein he has either changed the name, or made use of that which is not the most commonly known, that he might the further deviate from the language of common life.

The same reason recommended to him several old words, which also makes his poem appear the more venerable, and gives it a greater air of antiqrity. The same liberty was made use of by Homer. Milton, by the above-mentioned helps, and by the choice of the noblest words and phrases which our tongue would afford him, has carried our language to a greater height than any of the English poets have ever done before or after him, and made the sublimity of his style equal to that of his sentiments; yet in some places his style is rendered stiff and obscure by the methods which he adopted for raising his style Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

the prosaic. These forms of expression, however, with which Milton has so very much enriched, and in some places darkened the language of his poem, were the more proper for him to use, because his poem is written in blank verse.

Rhyme, without any other assistance, throws the language off from prose, and often makes an indifferent phrase pass unregarded; but where the verse is not built upon rhymes, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? pomp of sound and energy of expression are indispensably necessary to support the style and keep it from falling into the flatness of prose. Upon the subject of Poetic Diction, Dugald Stewart offers some excellent observations, Works, vol.

He says: As it is one great Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? of the poet, in his serious productions, to Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? the imagination of his readers above the grossness of sensible objects, and the vulgarity of common life, it becomes peculiarly necessary for him to reject the use of all words and phrases which are trivial and hackneyed.

Among those which are equally pure and equally perspicuous, he, in general, finds it expedient to adopt that which is the least common. Milton prefers the words Rhene and Danaw, to the more common words Rhine and Danube. It may, therefore, retain its charm as long as the language exists; nay, the charm may increase, as the language. Indeed, the charm of poetical diction must increase to a certain degree, as polite literature advances.

For, when once a set of words has been consecrated to poetry, the very sound of them, independently of the ideas they convey, awakens, every time we hear it, the agreeable impressions which were connected with it, when we met with them in the performances of our favourite authors.

Even when strung together in sentences which convey no meaning, they produce some effect on the mind of a reader of sensibility; an effect, at least, extremely different from that of an unmeaning sentence in prose. Nor is it merely by a difference of words that the language of poetry is distinguished from that of prose.

When a poetical arrangement of words has once been established by authors of reputation, the most common expressions, by being presented in this consecrated order, may serve to excite poetical associations.

On the other hand, nothing more completely destroys the charm of poetry, than a string of words which the custom of ordinary discourse has arranged in so invariable an order, that the whole phrase may be anticipated from hearing its commencement: A single word frequently strikes us as flat and prosaic, in consequence of its familiarity; but two such words, coupled together in the order of conversation, can scarcely be introduced into serious poetry without approaching the ludicrous.

No poet in our language has shown so strikingly as Milton, the wonderfill elevation which style may derive from an arrangement of words, which, while it i-p pfetly intelligible, de arts widely from thato which we are in general accustomed. Many of his most sublime periods, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? the order of the words is altered, are reduced nearly to the level of prose.

To copy this artifice with success, is a much more difficult attainment than is commonly imagined; and, of consequence, when it is acquired, it secures an author, to a great degree, from that crowd of imitators who spoil the effect of whatever is not beyond their reach.

To the poet, who uses blan. And, accordingly, among our magazine poets, ten thousand catch the structure of Pope's versification, for one who approaches to the manner of Milton or Thomson. GoD, sitting on his throne, sees Satan flying towards this world, then newly created; shows him to the Son, w ho sat at his right hand; foretells the success of Satan in perverting mankind; clears his own justice and wisdom from all imputation, having created Man free and able enough to have withstood his tempter; yet declares his purpose of grace towards him, in regard he fell not of his own malice, as did Satan, but by him seduced.

The Son of God renders praises to his Father for the manifestation of his Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? purpose towards Man; but God again declares, that grace cannot be extended towards Man without Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? satisfaction of divine justice; Man hath offended the Majesty of God by aspiring to Godhead, and, therefore, with all his progeny, devoted to death, must die, unless some one can be found sufficient to answer for his offence, and undergo his punishment.

The Son of God freely offers himself a ransom for Man; the Father accepts him, ordains his incarnation, pronounces his exaltation above all names in Heaven and Earth; commands all the Angels to adore him; they obey, and hymning to their harps in full choir, celebrate the Father and the Son. Meanwhile Satan alights upon the bare convex of this world's outermost orb, where, wandering, he first finds a place, since called the Limbo of Vanity; what persons and things fly up Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

thence comes to the gate of Heaven, descried ascending by stairs, and the waters above Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

firmament that flow about it; his passage thence to the orb of the Sun; he finds there Uriel, the regent of that orb, but first changes himself into the shape of a meaner Angel; and pretending a zealous desire to behold the new creation, and Man whom God had placed here, inquires of him the place of his habitation, and is directed; alights first on Mount Niphates.

The unfavourable opinion has arisen from a narrow view of the nature of Poetry; from the theory of those who think that it ought to be confined to description and imagery; on the contrary, the highest poetry consists more of spirit than of matter.

Matter is good only so far as it is imbued with spirit, or causes spiritual exaltation. Among the innumerable grand descriptions in Milton, I do not believe there is one which stands unconnected with complex intellectual considerations, and of which those considerations do not form a leading part of the attraction. The learned allusions may be too deep for the common reader; and so far, the poet is above the reach of the multitude: but even then they create a certain vague stir in unprepared minds; names indistinctly heard; visions dimly seen; constant recognitions of Scriptural passages, and sacred names, awfully impressed on the memory from childhood, awaken the sensitive understanding with sacred and mysterious movements.

We do not read Milton in the same light Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? as we read any other poet: his Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? the imagination of a sublime instructor: we give our faith through duty as well as will. If our fancy flags we strain it, that we may apprehend: we-know that there is something which our conception ought to reach. There is not an idle word in any of the delineations which the bard exhibits; nor is any picture merely addressed to the senses.

The Paradise lost, by John Milton. With notes, explanatory and critical. Ed. by Rev. James Robert Boyd.

Everything is invention-arising Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? novelty or complexity of combination; nothing is a mere reflection from the mirror of the fancy. Milton early broke loose from the narrow bounds of observation, and explored the trackless regions of air, and worlds of spirits-the good and the bad.

There his pregnant imagination embodied new states of existence, and out of chaos drew form and life, and all that is grand, and beautiful, and godlike; and yet, he so mingled them up with materials from the globe in which we are placed, that it is an unpardonable error to say that Paradise Lost contains little that is applicable to human interests.

The human learning, and human wisdom, contained in every page, are inexhaustible. On this account no other poem requires so many explanatory notes, drawn from all the most extensive stores of erudition. He often replenished his images and forms of expression from Homer and Virgil, and yet, never was a servile borrower.

There is an added pleasure to what in itself is beautiful from the happiness of his adaptations. I do not doubt that what he wrote was from a conjunction of geidtis7 learning,' art, and labour; hut the grand source of all his poetical conception and language, was the Scripture. Horace advises a poet to consider thoroughly the nature and force- of his genius. Milton seems to have known perfectly well wherein his strength lay, and has, therefore, chosen a subject entirely conformable to those talents of which he was master.

As his genius was wonderfully turned to the suiblime, his subject is the noblest that could have entered into the, thoughts of man. Everything that is truly great and astonishing, has a place in it. The whole system of the intellectual world-the Chaos and the CreationHeaven, Earth, and Hell, Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? into the constitution of this poem. Having, in the First and Second Books, represented the infernal world -with all its horrors, the thread of his story naturally leads him into the opposite regions of bliss and glory.

Or hear'st thou rather, pure ethereal stream, Whose fountain who shall tell? Hail, holy Light: An elegant apostrophe to light. Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? questions whether he should address the light as the first-born of Heaven, or as the coeternal beam of the eternal Father, or as a pure etheral stream, whose fountain is unknown 7, 8 ; but, as the second appellation seems to ascribe a proper eternity to light, Milton very justly doubts whether he might use that without blame.

Compare with 1 John i. See Book of Wisdom vii. Thee I revisit now with bolder wing, Escaped the S tvipool, though long detain'd In that obscure sojourn, while in my flight 15 Through utter and through middle darkness borne With other notes than to th' Orphean lyre I sung of Chaos and eternal Night, 4 Taught by the heav'nly Muse to venture down The dark descent, and up to re-ascend, 20 Though hard and rare: thee I revisit safe, And feel thy sov'reign vital lamp: but thou Revisit'st not these eyes, that roll in vain To find thy piercing ray, and find no dawn; 11.

This line is borrowed from Spenser. It has not the sense of empty, for we have seen that Chaos was described as full of matter; but it has the sense of unorganized, unarranged. That is, through Hell, which is often called utter outer darkness, and through the great gulf between Hell and Heaven, the middle darkness. He was inspired by his mother, Callioe, only; Milton, by the heavenly Muse; therefore, he boasts that he sung with other meaning better notes than Orpheus, though the subjects were the same.

Heavenly Muse: The Holy Spirit, or, in imitation of the classical poets, Milton addresses one of those imaginary goddesses that preside over poetry and the fine arts. These, from the etymology of the word, are supposed to be nothing more than personifications of the inventive powers of the mind, as displayed in the several arts. So thick a drop serene hath quench'd their orbs, 25 Or dim suffusion veil'd. Yet not the more Cease I to wander where the Muses haunt Clear spring, or shady grove, or sunny hill, Smit with the love of sacred song; but chief Thee, Sion, and the flow'ry brooks benea.

Drop-serene: A disease of the eye, affecting the retina. Dim stuftusion: Supposed, in the time of Milton, to be caused by aifilm gradually covering the front of the eye, but really caused by a change in the crystalline humour, called cataract. Dhn s uffiusion: This line may best be explained by an extract from one of Milton's Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?, written in 1654, about ten years after his sight began to be impaired, and when the left eye had become useless.

The steadfast earth seemed Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? like a flood. Cease to twander: Forbear to wander; I do it as much as I did before I was blind. He still was pleased to study the beauties of the ancient poets, but his highest delight was in the songs of Sion, in the holy Scriptures.

Thus, in Latin, ncc and neque are frequently the same as et non. Mc eoides: A su:rname of Homer, derived from his sTpposed birth in iMcPeoia. The enemies of the blind pc-et cruelly taunted him, in their writings, with his blindness, as a just affliction of Heaven for the active part which he took against Charles I.

The Christian philosophy which he exhibits in one of his replies, is full of interest. And why should I repent at a calamity, which every man's mind ought to be so prepared and disciplined, as to be able, on the contingency of its happening, to undergo with patience: a calamity to which every man, by the condition of his nature, is liable, and which I know to have been the lot of some of the Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

and best of my species. Among those on whom it has fallen, I might reckon some of the remotest bards of remote antiquity, whose want of sight the gods are said to have compensated with extraordinary, ahd far more valuable endowments, and whose virtues were so venerated, that men would rather arraign the gods themselves of injustice, than draw from the blindness of these admirable mortals, an argument of their guilt.

What is handed down to us respecting the augur Tiresias is very commonly known. Of Phineus, Apollonius, in his Argonautics, thus sings: ' Careless of Jove. The god hence gave him years without decay But robbed his eye-balls of the pleasing day.

It resembles a line in Speeser, whence it may have been borrowed. Harmonious numbers: The reader will observe the flowing of the numbers here with all the ease and harmony of the finest voluntary. The words seem, of themselves, to have fallen naturally into verse, almost without the poet's thinking of it.

This harmony appears to the greater advantage for the roughness of some of the preceding verses, which is an artifice frequently practiced by Milton, to be careless of his numbers in some places the better to set off the musical flow of those which immediately follow. Thus with the year 40 Seasons return, but not to me returns Day, or the sweet approach of Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

or morn, Or sight of vernal bloom, or summer's rose, Or f,cks, or herds, or human face divine; But cloud instead, and ever-during dark 45 Surrounds me, from the cheerful ways of men Cut off, and for the Book of knowledge fair Presented with an universal blank Of Nature's works, to me expunged and rased, And Wisdom at one entrance quite shut out, 50 So much the rather thou, celestial Light.

Shine inward, and the mind through all her pow'rs Irradiate, there plant 2yess; all mist from thence Purge and disperse, that I may see and tell Of things invisible to mortal sight. Thus with the year, fc. The particular objects on which he is described as casting his eye, are represented in the most beautiful and lively manner.

Him God beholding from his prospect high, Wherein past, present, future, he beholds, Thus to his only Son foreseeing spake: Only begotten Son, seest thou what rage 80 Transports our Adversary? And now, Through all restraint broke loose, he wings his way 74-5. The universe now 41 eared to Satan to be a solid globe, encompassed on all sides, but whetl with water or witHhair was uncertain; yet, it was without firmament-that is, without any sphere of fixed stars over it, as is now over the earth.

The sphere of fixed stars was itself comprehended in it in the world here spoken ofand made a part of it. Thus to his only Son foreseeing spakle: If Milton's majesty forsakes him anywhere, it is in those parts of his poem where the Divine Persons are introduced as speakers. The author seems to proceed with a kind of fear and trembling, while he describes the sentiments of the Almighty.

He dares not give his imagination its full play, but chooses to confine himself to such thoughts as are drawn from the books of the most orthodox divines, and to such expressions as may be met with in Scripture. The beauties, therefore, which we are apt to look for in these speeches, are not of a poetical nature, nor so proper to fill the mind with sentiments of grandeur as with thoughts of devotion. The passions which they are designed to raise, are a divine love and a religious fear.

Wide interrupt: Widely broken, and abounding in chasms. Ingrate, he had of me All he could have; I made him just and right, Sufficient to have stood, though free to fall. Such I created all th' ethereal Pow'rs 100 And Spirits, both them who stood and them who fail'd; Freely they stood, who stood,-and fell, who fell. Not fre Z what proof could they have giv'n sincere Of true allegiance, constant faith, or love, Where only what they needs must do appear'd, 105 Not what they would?

What pleasure I from such obedience paid, When will and reason reason also is choice Useless and vain, of freedom both despoil'd, Made passive both, had served necessity, 110 Not me?

They therefore, as to right belong'd, So were created, nor can justly accuse Their Maker, or their making, or their fate, Asijfpredestination over-ruled 93.

Whose fault: The responsibility of the fall is here justly attributed to man, being based upon his freedom and capacity to act rightly, or otherwise.

Not free: Not being free. Reason also is choice: Reason is connected with choice-is essential to the exercise of will. If I foreknew, Foreknowledge had no influence on their fault, Which had no less proved certain unforeknown.

Tee by their own suggestion fell, Self-tempted, self-depraved: Man falls, deceived 130 By th' other first: Man therefore shall find grace, The other none: in mercy and justice both, Through Heav'n and Earth, so shall my glory excel, in a regular scheme, the whole disIansation of Providence with respect to man. He has represented all the abstruse doctrines of predestination, freewill, and grace, as also the great points of incarnation and redemption which naturally grow up in a poem that treats of the fall of manwith greal energy of expression, and in a clearer and stronger light than I ever mel with in any other writer.

As these points are dry in themselves, to the generality of readers, the concise and clear manner in which he has treated them, is very much to be admired, as is likewise that particular art which he has made use of in the interspersing of all those graces of poetry which the subject was capable of receiving. See the note on line 172. It has been objected to Milton by Dr. Blair, that he is too frequently theological and metaphysical; but, on this point, there is ground for an opposite opinion.

Why should not the poet be indulged in strains both theological and metaphysical, when treating upon a subject that lies at the foundation Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? revealed theology, and involves some of the most subtle operations of the human mind?

The Fall of Man, and the Loss of Paradise, could not have been treated with satisfactory fullness if the profound remarks of the poet relating to theology and mental philosophy had been omitted. Immutably foreseen: So foreseen as to be immutable. For should Man finally be lost; should Man, 150 Thy creature late so loved, thy youngest son, Fall circumvented thus by fraud, though join'd With his own folly?

Shall he fulfil His malice, and thy goodness bring to nought, Or proud return, though to his heavier doom, Yet with revenge accomplish'd, and to Hell 160 Draw after him the whole race of mankind By him corrupted? Or, wilt thou thyself Abolish thy creation, and unmake, For him, what for thy glory thou hast made? And in the blessed spirits,-c. To whom the great Creator thus reply'd: O Son, in whom my soul hath chief delight, Son of my bosom, Son who art alone v word, m wisdom, and effectual might, 170 All hast thou spoken as my thoughts are; all As my eternal purp hath decreed.

Man shall not quite be lost, but saved who will, Yet not of will in him, but grace in me Freely vouchsafed. Once more I will renew 175 His lapsed pow'rs, though forfeit and enthrallPd By sin to foul exorbitant desires: Upheld by me, yet once more he shall stand On even ground against his mortal foe, By me upeldthat he may know how frail 180 His fall'n condition is, and to me owe All his deliv'rance, and to none but me Some I have chosen of peculiar grace Elect above the rest;so is my will: The rest shall hear me call, and oft be warn'd 185 Their sinful state, and to appease betimes Th' incensed Deity, while offer'd grace Invites; for I will clear their senses dark, What may suffice, and soften ston hearts To pray, repent, and bring obedience due.

And I will place within them as a guide My umpire Conscience; whom if they will hear, 195 170. My word, my wisdom: John i. Upheld: Compare this with line 178, and remark the happy effect of changing the position of this word in the two lines. This my long sufPrance and my day of grace They who neglect and scorn, shall never taste; But hard be harden'd, blind be blinded more, 200 That they may stumble on, and deeper fall: And none but such from mercy I exclude.

But yet all is not done: Man disobeying, Disloyal breaks his fealty, and sins Against the High Supremacy of Heav'n, 205 Affecting Godhead, and so losing all, To expiate his treason hath nought left, But to destruction sacred and devote He, with his whole posterity, must die; Die he or justice must; unless for him 210 Some other able, and as willing, pay The rigid satisfaction, death for death.

Say, heav'nly Pow'rs, where shall we find such love? Which of ye will be mortal to redeem Man's mortal crime, and just th' unjAt to save? He ask'd; but all the heav'nly choir stood mute, And silence was in Heav'n: on Man's behalf Patron or intercessor none appear'd, Much less that durst upon his own head draw 220 The deadly forfeiture, and ransom set.

And now without redemption all mankind Must have been lost, adjudged to Death and Hell By doom severe, had not the Son of God, In whom the fulness dwells of love divine, 225 His dearest mediation thus renew'd: Father, thy word is past, Man shall find grace; 199. Choir stood 'mte: This is a beautiful circumstance; the occasion was a fit one to pr oduce such,iltelce in heaven.

Happy for man, so coming: he her aid Can never seek, once dead in sins and lost: Atonement for himself or off'ring meet, Indebted and undone, hath none to bring. Unprevented: Not preceded by anything, by any effort in man. Corruption: Decomposition Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

the body, Acts ii.

Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames?

It has been objected to Milton's story that the hero is unsuccessful, and by no means a match for his enemies. This gave occasion to Dryden's reflection that Satan was in reality Milton's hero. To this it may be replied, that Paradise Lost is a narrative poem, and he that looks for a hero in it searches for that which Milton never intended; but if he is determined to fix the name of a hero upon any person in it, the Messiah is certainly the hero, both in the principal action and in the chief episodes.

Inglorious, of his mortal sting disarm'd. I through the ample air in triumph high Shall lead Hell captive maugre Hell, and shew 255 The Pow'rs of darkness bound. Thou at the sight Pleased, out of Heav'n shalt look down and smile, While by thee raised I ruin all my foes, Death last, and with his carcase glut the grave: Then with the multitude of my redeem'd 260 Shall enter Heav'n long absent, and return, Father, to see thy face, wherein no cloud Of anger shall remain, but peace assured And reconcilement; wrath shall be no more Thenceforth, but in thy presence joy entire.

Admiration seized All Heav'n, what this might mean, and whither tend, Wond'ring; but soon th' Almighty thus reply'd: 0 thou in Heav'n and Earth the only peace Found out for mankind under wrath r 0 thou 275 My sole complacence! Maugre Hell: In spite of Hell, Ps. What a charming and lovely picture has Milton given us of God the Son, considered as our Saviour and Redeemer!

There is a Who celebrates the Rhine in Flames? eloquence prettily expressed by the poet in his: Silent, yet spake. As in him perish all men, so in thee, As from a second root, shall be restored As many as are restored; without thee none. His crime makes guilty all his sons; thy merit 290 Imputed shall absolve them who renounce Their own both righteous and unrighteous deeds, And live in thee transplanted, and from thee Receive new life.

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